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Chemical Compound Review

Neotrehalose     2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[3,4,5- trihydroxy-6...

Synonyms: AGN-PC-00IYIJ, SureCN137621, NSC-2093, AG-B-87249, AG-G-23567, ...
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Disease relevance of trehalose


Psychiatry related information on trehalose


High impact information on trehalose

  • Recent studies clarified the unusual structures of arabinogalactan as well as of extractable cell wall lipids, such as trehalose-based lipooligosaccharides, phenolic glycolipids, and glycopeptidolipids [9].
  • Overexpression of the Tre1 gene restored the taste sensitivity to trehalose in the Tre1 deletion mutant [10].
  • Upon return to 30 degrees C, TPS1, TPS2, and HSP104 mRNAs, trehalose levels and tolerance to freezing fall dramatically within minutes [11].
  • Multiple effects of trehalose on protein folding in vitro and in vivo [12].
  • Transgenic rescue experiments showed that Gr5a confers response to trehalose [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of trehalose


Biological context of trehalose

  • These findings reconcile conflicting reports on the role of trehalose in stress tolerance, provide a novel tool for accessing protein folding intermediates, and define new parameters for modulating stress tolerance and protein aggregation [12].
  • Trehalose synthase: guard to the gate of glycolysis in yeast [19]?
  • Overexpression of RGS2 generates phenotypes consistent with low activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), such as enhanced accumulation of trehalose and glycogen, enhanced heat resistance and elevated expression of STRE-controlled genes [20].
  • Although this accumulation of trehalose did not influence growth at 16 degrees C, it enhanced cell viability when the temperature fell further to 4 degrees C. Before the trehalose build-up, levels of mRNA encoding OtsA/OtsB increased markedly [5].
  • A hydrophobic pocket and tunnel extending 21 A into the core of the protein indicates the location of a probable trehalose monomycolate binding site [21].

Anatomical context of trehalose

  • Thus the interpretation placed on the finding that trehalose can stabilize dry membranes must be regarded from this perspective as well [22].
  • Human primary fibroblasts expressing trehalose could be maintained in the dry state for up to five days [4].
  • Low concentrations (0.2 M) of trehalose permitted long-term post-thaw survival of more than 80% of 3T3 fibroblasts and 70% of human keratinocytes [3].
  • The discovery informs about the evolution of plant metabolism and how chloroplasts of prokaryotic origin use an intermediate of the ancient trehalose pathway to report the metabolic status of the cytosol [23].
  • We demonstrate by heterologous expression in a Drosophila S2 cell line that Gr5a encodes a receptor tuned to trehalose [24].

Associations of trehalose with other chemical compounds


Gene context of trehalose

  • One such mutation was further characterized and the affected gene was shown to be identical to TPS2 which encodes trehalose phosphate phosphatase, an enzyme catalysing the second step in trehalose biosynthesis [28].
  • Tpk2 negatively regulates genes involved in iron uptake and positively regulates genes involved in trehalose degradation and water homeostasis [29].
  • The neutral trehalase is responsible for intracellular hydrolysis of trehalose, in contrast to the acid trehalase, which is responsible for utilization of extracellular trehalose [30].
  • The role of the putative trehalase Nth2p in trehalose metabolism is not known [30].
  • Deletion of TPS1 totally abolished TPS activity and measurable trehalose, whereas deletion of any of the other genes in most cases reduced both [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trehalose


  1. Regression of tumors in guinea pigs after treatment with synthetic muramyl dipeptides and trehalose dimycolate. McLaughlin, C.A., Schwartzman, S.M., Horner, B.L., Jones, G.H., Moffatt, J.G., Nestor, J.J., Tegg, D. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. Trans-cyclopropanation of mycolic acids on trehalose dimycolate suppresses Mycobacterium tuberculosis -induced inflammation and virulence. Rao, V., Gao, F., Chen, B., Jacobs, W.R., Glickman, M.S. J. Clin. Invest. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of cryopreserved mammalian cells. Eroglu, A., Russo, M.J., Bieganski, R., Fowler, A., Cheley, S., Bayley, H., Toner, M. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Trehalose expression confers desiccation tolerance on human cells. Guo, N., Puhlev, I., Brown, D.R., Mansbridge, J., Levine, F. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Trehalose synthesis is induced upon exposure of Escherichia coli to cold and is essential for viability at low temperatures. Kandror, O., DeLeon, A., Goldberg, A.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Trehalose alleviates polyglutamine-mediated pathology in a mouse model of Huntington disease. Tanaka, M., Machida, Y., Niu, S., Ikeda, T., Jana, N.R., Doi, H., Kurosawa, M., Nekooki, M., Nukina, N. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Disruption of insulin pathways alters trehalose level and abolishes sexual dimorphism in locomotor activity in Drosophila. Belgacem, Y.H., Martin, J.R. J. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Sugar and alcohol molecules provide a therapeutic strategy for the serpinopathies that cause dementia and cirrhosis. Sharp, L.K., Mallya, M., Kinghorn, K.J., Wang, Z., Crowther, D.C., Huntington, J.A., Belorgey, D., Lomas, D.A. FEBS J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The envelope of mycobacteria. Brennan, P.J., Nikaido, H. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular identification of a taste receptor gene for trehalose in Drosophila. Ishimoto, H., Matsumoto, A., Tanimura, T. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Yeast adapt to near-freezing temperatures by STRE/Msn2,4-dependent induction of trehalose synthesis and certain molecular chaperones. Kandror, O., Bretschneider, N., Kreydin, E., Cavalieri, D., Goldberg, A.L. Mol. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Multiple effects of trehalose on protein folding in vitro and in vivo. Singer, M.A., Lindquist, S. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. A Gr receptor is required for response to the sugar trehalose in taste neurons of Drosophila. Dahanukar, A., Foster, K., van der Goes van Naters, W.M., Carlson, J.R. Nat. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphorylase is part of a novel metabolic pathway for trehalose utilization in Lactococcus lactis. Andersson, U., Levander, F., Rådström, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Purification and characterization of a novel mycolic acid exchange enzyme from Mycobacterium smegmatis. Sathyamoorthy, N., Takayama, K. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. N-acylkansosamine. A novel N-acylamino sugar from the trehalose-containing lipooligosaccharide antigens of Mycobacterium kansasii. Hunter, S.W., Fujiwara, T., Murphy, R.C., Brennan, P.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. In vivo activity of released cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin is due principally to trehalose mycolates. Geisel, R.E., Sakamoto, K., Russell, D.G., Rhoades, E.R. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Maltose-binding protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima: stability and binding properties. Wassenberg, D., Liebl, W., Jaenicke, R. J. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Trehalose synthase: guard to the gate of glycolysis in yeast? Thevelein, J.M., Hohmann, S. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. A novel regulator of G protein signalling in yeast, Rgs2, downregulates glucose-activation of the cAMP pathway through direct inhibition of Gpa2. Versele, M., de Winde, J.H., Thevelein, J.M. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. Crystal structure of the secreted form of antigen 85C reveals potential targets for mycobacterial drugs and vaccines. Ronning, D.R., Klabunde, T., Besra, G.S., Vissa, V.D., Belisle, J.T., Sacchettini, J.C. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Anhydrobiosis. Crowe, J.H., Hoekstra, F.A., Crowe, L.M. Annu. Rev. Physiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Trehalose 6-phosphate regulates starch synthesis via posttranslational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Kolbe, A., Tiessen, A., Schluepmann, H., Paul, M., Ulrich, S., Geigenberger, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Drosophila Gr5a encodes a taste receptor tuned to trehalose. Chyb, S., Dahanukar, A., Wickens, A., Carlson, J.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of the molecular defect in infantile and adult acid alpha-glucosidase deficiency fibroblasts. Beratis, N.G., LaBadie, G.U., Hirschhorn, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Crystal structure of MalK, the ATPase subunit of the trehalose/maltose ABC transporter of the archaeon Thermococcus litoralis. Diederichs, K., Diez, J., Greller, G., Müller, C., Breed, J., Schnell, C., Vonrhein, C., Boos, W., Welte, W. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Exploring drug-induced alterations in gene expression in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by microarray hybridization. Wilson, M., DeRisi, J., Kristensen, H.H., Imboden, P., Rane, S., Brown, P.O., Schoolnik, G.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Yap1p, a yeast transcriptional activator that mediates multidrug resistance, regulates the metabolic stress response. Gounalaki, N., Thireos, G. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. The yeast A kinases differentially regulate iron uptake and respiratory function. Robertson, L.S., Causton, H.C., Young, R.A., Fink, G.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Molecular biology of trehalose and the trehalases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nwaka, S., Holzer, H. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Composition and functional analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trehalose synthase complex. Bell, W., Sun, W., Hohmann, S., Wera, S., Reinders, A., De Virgilio, C., Wiemken, A., Thevelein, J.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  32. Of tardigrades, trehalose, and tissue engineering. Bradbury, J. Lancet (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Dry instant blood typing plate for bedside use. Blakeley, D., Tolliday, B., Colaco, C., Roser, B. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
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