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MeSH Review

Cosmids

 
 
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Disease relevance of Cosmids

 

High impact information on Cosmids

  • Exon amplification from cosmids covering this deleted region allowed identification of the human FHIT gene, a member of ther histidine triad gene family, which encodes a protein with 69% similarity to an S. pombe enzyme, diadenosine 5', 5''' P1, P4-tetraphosphate asymmetrical hydrolase [5].
  • A human sequence (PTC) with strong homology to the Drosophila segment polarity gene, patched, was isolated from a YAC and cosmid contig of the NBCCS region [6].
  • We identified expressed sequences within a cosmid in the glycerol kinase (GK) "critical region" of Xp21 that had impressive similarity to prokaryotic GKs [7].
  • We have now isolated cosmids for six additional human PAX genes (PAX-1,-2,-5,-7,-8,-9) and a polymerase chain reaction fragment for PAX-4 [8].
  • A 1.2-Megabase stretch of DNA from the short arm of chromosome 6 containing the SCA1 locus was isolated in a yeast artificial chromosome contig and subcloned into cosmids [9].
 

Chemical compound and disease context of Cosmids

 

Biological context of Cosmids

  • A total of 116,118 basepairs (bp) derived from three cosmids spanning the ERCC1 locus of human chromosome 19q13.3 have been sequenced with automated fluorescence-based sequencers and analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and computer methods [15].
  • To identify the K10 gene we used P-mediated transformation with cosmid clones constructed in cos-P, a cosmid vector incorporating the terminal repeats of the P element [16].
  • A DNA probe from a human Y chromosome-derived cosmid detects a single-copy genomic DNA fragment which can appear in different allelic forms shared by both sex chromosomes [17].
  • A cosmid clone that contained the human NGF receptor gene allowed efficient transfection and expression of the receptor [18].
  • In contrast, C2 RNA and protein were expressed by L cells alone and by L cells transfected with a control plasmid, as well as by L cells transfected with cosmids encoding human and murine complement genes [19].
 

Anatomical context of Cosmids

  • Exons recovered from cosmid Y24 identified cDNA clones corresponding to the alpha-subunit of adducin, a calmodulin-binding protein that is thought to promote assembly of spectrin-actin complexes in the formation of the membrane cytoskeleton, alpha-adducin is widely expressed and, at least in brain, is encoded by alternatively spliced mRNAs [20].
  • Furthermore, in a murine fibroblast L-cell line transfected with cosmid DNA bearing the human C2 and factor B genes, IL-1 mediated a reversible dose- and time-dependent increase in factor B expression in the transfected cells [21].
  • To explore the mechanism of constitutive IL-2 expression in MLA 144, we have isolated and characterized cosmid clones representing a normal and a doubly inserted IL-2 allele in this cell line [22].
  • The cosmids mapped to 16p13.13-p13.2, the location assigned to ERCC4 by using somatic cell hybrids [23].
  • We have recently isolated overlapping recombinant cosmids that represent the equivalent of two complete dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) amplicon types from the methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line CHOC 400 [24].
 

Associations of Cosmids with chemical compounds

  • The genes were cloned in a cosmid vector and the entire cosmid was nick translated to incorporate biotin-labeled dUTP [25].
  • Due to the original linkage of the oncogene with the cosmid containing the kanamycin resistance gene, a series of kanamycin-resistant cosmids were isolated, five of which contained an active oncogene [26].
  • Mouse Lewis Lung tumor DNA was ligated to a cosmid containing a geneticin (G418)/kanamycin resistance gene and transferred into NIH3T3 cells [26].
  • A cloned genomic fragment containing the single C4B gene was isolated and found to be similar to the homologous region of a cosmid from a normal individual carrying a C4A gene [27].
  • Simultaneous hybridization of the biotinylated long interspersed element probe and a digoxigenin-labeled cosmid to metaphase spreads allows rapid localization of a probe of interest to a particular cytogenetic band on a chromosome [28].
 

Gene context of Cosmids

  • By subcloning a YAC with a 640 kilobases (kb) insert which spans the DXS7-MAOB interval we have generated a cosmid contig which extends 250 kb beyond the MAOB gene [29].
  • However, by mapping of 56.8 kb of overlapping cosmid clones and direct sequencing, we could localize the polymorphic NcoI restriction site within the first intron of the TNF-beta gene and not in the TNF-alpha gene [30].
  • The 190 kb of DNA linking all five CD1 genes has been spanned by 14 overlapping cosmids [31].
  • 3. Direct transfer of a cosmid bearing the ERCC2 gene conferred UV resistance to XP-D cells [32].
  • Six of these, with deletions <500 kb, share a similar proximal breakpoint within a cosmid containing the last 10 exons of PAX6 and part of the neighboring gene, ELP4 [33].
 

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cosmids

References

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  15. Automated DNA sequencing and analysis of 106 kilobases from human chromosome 19q13.3. Martin-Gallardo, A., McCombie, W.R., Gocayne, J.D., FitzGerald, M.G., Wallace, S., Lee, B.M., Lamerdin, J., Trapp, S., Kelley, J.M., Liu, L.I. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. A 43 kilobase cosmid P transposon rescues the fs(1)K10 morphogenetic locus and three adjacent Drosophila developmental mutants. Haenlin, M., Steller, H., Pirrotta, V., Mohier, E. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Pseudoautosomal DNA sequences in the pairing region of the human sex chromosomes. Simmler, M.C., Rouyer, F., Vergnaud, G., Nyström-Lahti, M., Ngo, K.Y., de la Chapelle, A., Weissenbach, J. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  18. Gene transfer and molecular cloning of the human NGF receptor. Chao, M.V., Bothwell, M.A., Ross, A.H., Koprowski, H., Lanahan, A.A., Buck, C.R., Sehgal, A. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of complement proteins C2 and factor B in transfected L cells. Perlmutter, D.H., Colten, H.R., Grossberger, D., Strominger, J., Seidman, J.G., Chaplin, D.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Cloning of the alpha-adducin gene from the Huntington's disease candidate region of chromosome 4 by exon amplification. Taylor, S.A., Snell, R.G., Buckler, A., Ambrose, C., Duyao, M., Church, D., Lin, C.S., Altherr, M., Bates, G.P., Groot, N. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  24. Organization and genesis of dihydrofolate reductase amplicons in the genome of a methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line. Ma, C., Looney, J.E., Leu, T.H., Hamlin, J.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  25. Mapping muscle protein genes by in situ hybridization using biotin-labeled probes. Albertson, D.G. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  26. Use of gene transfer and a novel cosmid rescue strategy to isolate transforming sequences. Brady, G., Funk, A., Mattern, J., Schütz, G., Brown, R. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Deletion of complement C4 and steroid 21-hydroxylase genes in the HLA class III region. Carroll, M.C., Palsdottir, A., Belt, K.T., Porter, R.R. EMBO J. (1985) [Pubmed]
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