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Gene Review

POLG2  -  polymerase (DNA directed), gamma 2,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: DNA polymerase gamma accessory 55 kDa subunit, DNA polymerase subunit gamma-2, mitochondrial, HP55, MTPOLB, Mitochondrial DNA polymerase accessory subunit, ...
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Disease relevance of POLG2

  • Two diplotype groups, carrying the haplotypes composed of the DDX5 SNP and 2 neighboring POLG2 SNPs were also significantly associated with an increased risk of advanced fibrosis and had comparable or better risk estimates [1].

High impact information on POLG2

  • Biochemical characterization of purified, recombinant G451E-substituted p55 protein in vitro revealed incomplete stimulation of the catalytic subunit due to compromised subunit interaction [2].
  • The mitochondrial p55 accessory subunit of human DNA polymerase gamma enhances DNA binding, promotes processive DNA synthesis, and confers N-ethylmaleimide resistance [3].
  • The chipmunk hibernation-specific protein HP-55 is a component of a 140-kDa complex whose levels are drastically decreased in the blood during hibernation [4].
  • In the present study, cDNA clones coding for the chipmunk HP-55 were isolated from a liver cDNA library [5].
  • In spite of more than 86% overall aa sequence identity among the five chipmunk alpha1-AT-like proteins, they are highly divergent in the putative reactive center region; the putative P1-P1' sequences are Met-Leu (HP-55 or CM55-ML), Met-Met (CM55-MM), Met-Ser (CM55-MS), Ser-Ile (CM55-SI) and Ser-Thr (CM55-ST) [5].

Biological context of POLG2

  • Each of the alpha1-AT-like protein mRNAs was expressed in chipmunk liver, and the HP-55 mRNA level was greatly reduced during hibernation [5].

Anatomical context of POLG2

  • Film tablets with Aquateric and ammonia-based HP 55 solution absorbed more than 20% of gastric juice at this film thickness [6].

Associations of POLG2 with chemical compounds

  • HP-55 caused the highest degree of omeprazole degradation, followed by shellac, HPMCAS-HF, and Eudragit(R) L 100 [7].
  • Tablets were coated with a solution consisting of 7% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) phthalate (HP-55), and 0.5% cetyl alcohol in acetone and isopropanol (11:9) [8].
  • Papaverine hydrochloride suspensions in acetone/methanol (1:1) solutions of cellulose acetate phthalate, hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalate HP 50 and HP 55 were spray-dried by means of Aeromatic, type Strea-1 device [9].
  • Two reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methods were developed to investigate the degradation of the acid-labile proton-pump-inhibitor omeprazole in organic polymer solutions and aqueous dispersions of enteric coating polymers (Eudragit L-100, S-100, CAP, HP-55, HPMCAS-HF, -LF, and shellac) [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of POLG2

  • Sequence analysis revealed that HP-55 is produced as a precursor protein of 413 amino acids (aa), that it has a signal peptide of 24 aa, and that it contains four potential N-glycosylation sites [5].


  1. Identification of two gene variants associated with risk of advanced fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Huang, H., Shiffman, M.L., Cheung, R.C., Layden, T.J., Friedman, S., Abar, O.T., Yee, L., Chokkalingam, A.P., Schrodi, S.J., Chan, J., Catanese, J.J., Leong, D.U., Ross, D., Hu, X., Monto, A., McAllister, L.B., Broder, S., White, T., Sninsky, J.J., Wright, T.L. Gastroenterology (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutant POLG2 disrupts DNA polymerase gamma subunits and causes progressive external ophthalmoplegia. Longley, M.J., Clark, S., Yu Wai Man, C., Hudson, G., Durham, S.E., Taylor, R.W., Nightingale, S., Turnbull, D.M., Copeland, W.C., Chinnery, P.F. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. The mitochondrial p55 accessory subunit of human DNA polymerase gamma enhances DNA binding, promotes processive DNA synthesis, and confers N-ethylmaleimide resistance. Lim, S.E., Longley, M.J., Copeland, W.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of gene structures and promoter activities of the chipmunk alpha(1)-antitrypsin-like genes. Nakazawa, A., Inaba, Y., Kamijima, A., Kondo, N., Ito, M., Shiba, T., Takamatsu, N. Gene (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of multiple alpha1-antitrypsin-like genes in hibernating species of the squirrel family. Takamatsu, N., Kojima, M., Taniyama, M., Ohba, K., Uematsu, T., Segawa, C., Tsutou, S., Watanabe, M., Kondo, J., Kondo, N., Shiba, T. Gene (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Studies comparing Kollicoat MAE 30 D with commercial cellulose derivatives for enteric coating on caffeine cores. Scheiffele, S., Kolter, K., Schepky, G. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Solid state interactions between the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and various enteric coating polymers. Stroyer, A., McGinity, J.W., Leopold, C.S. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. A novel approach in the assessment of polymeric film formation and film adhesion on different pharmaceutical solid substrates. Missaghi, S., Fassihi, R. AAPS PharmSciTech [electronic resource]. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Pharmaceutical availability of papaverine hydrochloride from spray-dried products prepared with cellulose phthalates. Senjković, R., Bećirević, M., Rudić, J. Die Pharmazie. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Degradation of omeprazole induced by enteric polymer solutions and aqueous dispersions: HPLC investigations. Riedel, A., Leopold, C.S. Drug development and industrial pharmacy. (2005) [Pubmed]
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