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Gene Review

MUCL1  -  mucin-like 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Mucin-like protein 1, Protein BS106, SBEM, Small breast epithelial mucin, UNQ590/PRO1160
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Disease relevance of SBEM

  • The SBEM gene is predicted to code for a putative low molecular weight, secreted sialoglycoprotein, potentially useful for the diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer [1].
  • SBEM mRNA expression was detected in >90% of invasive ductal carcinomas and correlated with the expression of a previously characterized breast-specific gene, mammaglobin-1 (n = 54; Spearman r = 0.34, P = 0.011) [1].
  • In a subset of 20 primary breast tumors and their matched axillary lymph nodes, a high concordance (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.001) was seen between PCR detection of SBEM mRNA in lymph node tissue and their histopathological status, indicating that SBEM mRNA expression is conserved in nodal metastasis [1].
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) is increasing faster than any other cancer in the U.S. In this report, we first show that EA can be distinguished from normal esophagus (NE) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by plotting expression values for EpCam, TFF1, and SBEM in three-dimensional Euclidean space [2].

High impact information on SBEM

  • Further reverse-transcription PCR analyses confirmed SBEM expression in most of established human breast epithelial cell lines analyzed (7 of 8) but not in cell lines of non-breast origin (0 of 6) [1].
  • Hybridization analysis performed on 43 normal human tissues revealed that the SBEM gene was only expressed in mammary and salivary glands [1].
  • Expression profiling using the public expressed sequence tag (EST) and serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) databases resulted in the identification of a putative breast-specific mRNA that we have termed small breast epithelial mucin (SBEM) [1].
  • Addition of TFF1 and SBEM to the first tier (i.e., a five-gene marker panel) increases the overall accuracy of the assay to 98% (62/63) and results in mean molecular diagnostic scores (+/- SD) that are significantly different between EA and BE samples (3.19 +/- 1.07 versus -2.74 +/- 1.73, respectively) [2].
  • A recently identified small breast epithelial mucin almost exclusively expressed in mammary gland tissue was isolated as a mutated protein variant [3].

Biological context of SBEM


Anatomical context of SBEM

  • A series of SBEM promoter/luciferase constructs were transiently transfected into both breast (MCF-7, BT-20) and non-breast (HeLa and HepG2) cell lines [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SBEM


  1. Identification of a novel breast- and salivary gland-specific, mucin-like gene strongly expressed in normal and tumor human mammary epithelium. Miksicek, R.J., Myal, Y., Watson, P.H., Walker, C., Murphy, L.C., Leygue, E. Cancer Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Accurate discrimination of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma using a quantitative three-tiered algorithm and multimarker real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Mitas, M., Almeida, J.S., Mikhitarian, K., Gillanders, W.E., Lewin, D.N., Spyropoulos, D.D., Hoover, L., Graham, A., Glenn, T., King, P., Cole, D.J., Hawes, R., Reed, C.E., Hoffman, B.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Serological identification of breast cancer-related antigens from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae surface display library. Wadle, A., Mischo, A., Imig, J., Wüllner, B., Hensel, D., Wätzig, K., Neumann, F., Kubuschok, B., Schmidt, W., Old, L.J., Pfreundschuh, M., Renner, C. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Identification of an octamer-binding site controlling the activity of the small breast epithelial mucin gene promoter. Hubé, F., Chooniedass-Kothari, S., Hamedani, M.K., Miksicek, R.J., Leygue, E., Myal, Y. Front. Biosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of MGB1 as a marker in the differential diagnosis of lung tumors in patients with a history of breast cancer by analysis of publicly available SAGE data. Koga, T., Horio, Y., Mitsudomi, T., Takahashi, T., Yatabe, Y. The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD. (2004) [Pubmed]
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