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Gene Review

ECs0819  -  endolysin

Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. Sakai

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Disease relevance of ECs0819


High impact information on ECs0819

  • The unusual N-terminal domain, rich in residues that are weakly hydrophobic, thus functions as a signal-arrest-release sequence, which first acts as a normal signal-arrest domain to direct the endolysin to the periplasm in membrane-tethered form and then allows it to be released as a soluble active enzyme in the periplasm [1].
  • Hydrolysis of cell walls of L. helveticus CNRZ 303 by the endolysin and biochemical analysis of the residues produced demonstrated that Mur-LH has N-acetylmuramidase activity [4].
  • The N-terminal region (about 80 amino acids) of Lys consists of two discrete regions (the signal-peptide-like domain and the DE domain containing putative active sites of endolysin) [6].
  • Most bacteriophages terminate infection by creating lesions in the cytoplasmic membrane, which not only cause immediate cell death but also allow escape of a phage-encoded endolysin [7].
  • Four genes identified within the late operon of PBSX show characteristics expected of a host cell lysis system; they are xepA, encoding an exported protein; xhlA, encoding a putative membrane-associated protein; xhlB, encoding a putative holin; and xlyA, encoding a putative endolysin [8].

Biological context of ECs0819


Anatomical context of ECs0819

  • Thus, the N-terminal domain of Lyz is both necessary and sufficient not only for export of this endolysin to the membrane but also for its release into the periplasm [1].

Associations of ECs0819 with chemical compounds

  • The antibacterial activity of the endolysin towards these three bacterial strains was marked when EDTA was added to the endolysin solution [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ECs0819


  1. A signal-arrest-release sequence mediates export and control of the phage P1 endolysin. Xu, M., Struck, D.K., Deaton, J., Wang, I.N., Young, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. The murein hydrolase of the bacteriophage phi3626 dual lysis system is active against all tested Clostridium perfringens strains. Zimmer, M., Vukov, N., Scherer, S., Loessner, M.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. The missing link in phage lysis of gram-positive bacteria: gene 14 of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 encodes the functional homolog of lambda S protein. Steiner, M., Lubitz, W., Bläsi, U. J. Bacteriol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Mur-LH, the broad-spectrum endolysin of Lactobacillus helveticus temperate bacteriophage phi-0303. Deutsch, S.M., Guezenec, S., Piot, M., Foster, S., Lortal, S. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Evidence for a holin-like protein gene fully embedded out of frame in the endolysin gene of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage 187. Loessner, M.J., Gaeng, S., Scherer, S. J. Bacteriol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular analysis of the lysis protein Lys encoded by Lactobacillus plantarum phage phig1e. Kakikawa, M., Yokoi, K.J., Kimoto, H., Nakano, M., Kawasaki, K., Taketo, A., Kodaira, K. Gene (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. The lambda holin accumulates beyond the lethal triggering concentration under hyperexpression conditions. Smith, D.L., Chang, C.Y., Young, R. Gene Expr. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Lysis genes of the Bacillus subtilis defective prophage PBSX. Krogh, S., Jørgensen, S.T., Devine, K.M. J. Bacteriol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Functions involved in bacteriophage P2-induced host cell lysis and identification of a new tail gene. Ziermann, R., Bartlett, B., Calendar, R., Christie, G.E. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. The N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase encoded by the Bacillus subtilis 168 prophage SP beta. Regamey, A., Karamata, D. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage Twort: a large TTG-start holin and an associated amidase endolysin. Loessner, M.J., Gaeng, S., Wendlinger, G., Maier, S.K., Scherer, S. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Antibacterial activity of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phage endolysin without holin conjugation. Morita, M., Tanji, Y., Mizoguchi, K., Soejima, A., Orito, Y., Unno, H. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Cloning, expression and sequence analysis of an endolysin-encoding gene of Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteriophage mv1. Boizet, B., Lahbib-Mansais, Y., Dupont, L., Ritzenthaler, P., Mata, M. Gene (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of cryptic prophages (monocins) in Listeria and sequence analysis of a holin/endolysin gene. Zink, R., Loessner, M.J., Scherer, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and characterization of an endolysin encoded by the Streptomyces aureofaciens phage mu 1/6. Farkasovská, J., Godány, A., Vlcek, C. Folia Microbiol. (Praha) (2003) [Pubmed]
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