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Gene Review

Gpd1  -  glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1...

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AI747587, GPD-C, GPDH-C, Gdc-1, Gdc1, ...
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High impact information on Gpd1

  • The isozymes of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; sn-glycerol-3-phosphate:NAD+2-oxidoreductase, EC in tissues of the mouse are coded for by two structural genes, Gdc-1 and Gdc-2, located on chromosomes 15 and 9, respectively [1].
  • Other previous recombination data, involving the GIX+ strain AKR, had indicated that the Gpd-1 (chromosome 4) and Gv-1 loci are linked at a distance of 19 units from one another [2].
  • New data from other crosses show that this association of Gpd-1 (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 1) and GIX phenotypes also constitutes quasi-linkage, evidently due to heterozygosity at the Fv-1 locus [2].
  • D15Kz1 and Gdc-1 are not coordinately regulated, as evidenced by the characteristics of their expression in several tissues and in differentiating 3T3-F442A adipocyte cultures [3].
  • While studying the organization of the mouse glycerol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (Gdc-1 on chromosome 15), we identified a novel transcriptional unit located only 3.4 kilobases (kb) upstream of the 5' end of the Gdc-1 gene [3].

Biological context of Gpd1

  • This difference in enzyme levels, which positively correlates with similar differences in the levels of hybridizable GPDH mRNA, is controlled by at least two unlinked regulatory loci and the structural gene, Gdc-1, located on chromosome 15 [4].
  • Furthermore, since the Gdc-1 locus is expressed in virtually every tissue of the mouse except blood and since the observed genetic variation is restricted to the cerebellum, it is likely that other tissues will have their own distinctive genetic mechanisms for modulating Gdc-1 expression [4].
  • Analysis of F2 offspring segregating for enzyme activity levels and a PvuII restriction fragment length polymorphism in the Gdc-1 gene on Chromosome 15 indicates that the mutation has occurred in or around the structural gene [5].
  • Heart muscle was pooled from mice of the F2 generation with either c/c or d/d genotypes at the Gdc-1 locus as determined by analysis of liver L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [6].
  • Identical segregation patterns of the L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase phenotypes in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle from offspring of an F2 generation produced from parents with the c/d genotype suggest that the Gdc-1 locus is the major structural locus for L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase in these tissues [6].

Anatomical context of Gpd1

  • The elusion profile of the L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase indicates that the Gdc-1 locus is also the major structural locus in heart muscle [6].

Associations of Gpd1 with chemical compounds

  • In contrast to Ucp, the expression of Gdc-1, which encodes the cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and which is also induced in brown fat by cold exposure, was repressed by norepinephrine and induced by the addition of insulin [7].

Other interactions of Gpd1

  • One regulatory locus, Gdcr-1, although unlinked to the structural gene, has an allele in BALB/c mice that preferentially enhances expression of the BALB/c structural allele at Gdc-1 [4].
  • The other locus, Gdcr-2, which may or may not be single, enhances GPDH expression at Gdc-1 irrespective of the allele present, as is commonly observed for loci acting from a distance [4].
  • Mapping of the mouse Ly-6, Xp-14, and Gdc-1 loci to chromosome 15 [8].
  • Thirteen genetic loci spanning murine chromosome 15 from 15A2 (Mlvi-2) to 15F2-3 (Gdc-1) have been mapped [9].


  1. Mouse sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: molecular cloning and genetic mapping of a cDNA sequence. Kozak, L.P., Birkenmeier, E.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Heredity of the GIX thymocyte antigen associated with murine leukemia virus: segregation data simulating genetic linkage. Stockert, E., Boyse, E.A., Sato, H., Itakura, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. An ubiquitously expressed gene 3.5 kilobases upstream of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in mice. Johnston, L.A., Kotarski, M.A., Jerry, D.J., Kozak, L.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Interacting genes control glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression in developing cerebellum of the mouse. Kozak, L.P. Genetics (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. A glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase null mutant in BALB/cHeA mice. Prochazka, M., Kozak, U.C., Kozak, L.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The genetics and developmental regulation of L-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Kozak, L.P., Erdelsky, K.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Adrenergic regulation of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein gene in brown fat tumor cells. Kozak, U.C., Held, W., Kreutter, D., Kozak, L.P. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Mapping of the mouse Ly-6, Xp-14, and Gdc-1 loci to chromosome 15. Hogarth, P.M., McKenzie, I.F., Sutton, V.R., Curnow, K.M., Lee, B.K., Eicher, E.M. Immunogenetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Gene order and genetic distance of 13 loci spanning murine chromosome 15. Hameister, H., Schulz, W.A., Meyer, J., Thoma, S., Adolph, S., Gaa, A., von Deimling, O. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
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