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Gene Review

GPD1  -  glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: D2830, DAR1, HOR1, OSG1, OSR5, ...
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Disease relevance of GPD1


High impact information on GPD1


Biological context of GPD1

  • Deletion of both GPD1 and GPD2 in strain TN6 (gpd1-Delta1 gpd2-Delta1) resulted in a dramatic reduction in the maximum specific growth rate and in biomass formation [2].
  • Different signalling pathways contribute to the control of GPD1 gene expression by osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [9].
  • Specific inactivation of the Rap1p-binding sites by a C-to-A point mutation in the core of the consensus showed that this factor is a major determinant of GPD1 expression since mutations in all three putative binding sites for Rap1p strongly hampered osmotic induction and drastically lowered basal activity [10].
  • Chromoblot and tetrad analysis were used to position the GPD1 gene to chromosome IV, with a distance of about 18 cM from trp1 [11].
  • One such isozyme, GPD1, was shown to be directly involved in osmoregulation, based on the following observations [12].

Anatomical context of GPD1

  • Consistent with Sgd1p affecting the transcriptional control of GPD1, a functional green fluorescent protein tagged Sgd1p is localized to the cell nucleus [13].

Associations of GPD1 with chemical compounds

  • Mutants deleted for both GPD1 and GPD2 do not produce detectable glycerol, are highly osmosensitive and fail to grow under anoxic conditions [4].
  • NAD(+)-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae is present in two isoforms, coded for by two different genes, GPD1 and GPD2 [14].
  • DAR1 is distinct from GUT2, which encodes a glucose-repressed mitochondrial G3PDase, but is identical to GPD1 from S. cerevisiae, a close relative of S. diastaticus [3].
  • This indicates tha different molecular mechanisms might be operational for low and high salt responses of the GPD1 promoter [10].
  • The amount of glycerol produced by the GPD1-overexpressing yeast in fermentation experiments simulating brewing conditions was increased 5.6 times and ethanol was decreased by 18% when compared to the wild-type [15].

Physical interactions of GPD1


Other interactions of GPD1

  • The plc1Delta hog1Delta strain displays increased osmosensitivity, and has a synthetic defect in glycerol synthesis and the expression of GPD1 (which encodes the enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase that is involved in glycerol biosynthesis), suggesting that Plc1p and Hog1p function in independent pathways [16].
  • Phospholipase C interacts with Sgd1p and is required for expression of GPD1 and osmoresistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [16].
  • The data show that in addition to the general stress response pathway, using the HSP12 gene as a marker, other specific stress response pathways were induced, as indicated by the changes detected in the mRNA levels of two stress-related genes, GPD1 and TRX2 [17].
  • In this work an analysis of the expression of three osmotic stress induced genes (GPD1, HSP12 and HSP104) under microvinification conditions is shown as a way to probe those stress situations and the regulatory mechanisms that control them [18].
  • The osmotic stimulation of GPD1 expression does not seem to be mediated by derepression, since deletion of the SSN6 gene, which encodes a general repressor, did not significantly alter the induction profile [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPD1

  • The results of Northern blot analysis of GPD genes (GPD1 and GPD2) encoding the GPDH enzyme showed that the transcription of GPD genes was not affected by heat-shock treatment but the period of intensive transcription of GPD1 was prolonged [19].
  • The anaerobic performance of gpd1 delta and gpd2 delta mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized and compared to that of a wild-type strain under well-controlled conditions by using a high-performance bioreactor [20].
  • By sequencing of 2D-PAGE resolved proteins, one of the 8 induced spot, p42.9/5.5, was shown to correspond to the full length (containing the N-terminal extension) product of the GPD1 gene encoding the cytoplasmic glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [21].
  • Using a primer combination deduced from the sequence of a member of the small Hor1 gene family coding for the C-hordein storage proteins, the library was screened by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently by the colony hybridization technique [22].


  1. Expression cassettes for formaldehyde and fluoroacetate resistance, two dominant markers in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. van den Berg, M.A., Steensma, H.Y. Yeast (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Anaerobic and aerobic batch cultivations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants impaired in glycerol synthesis. Nissen, T.L., Hamann, C.W., Kielland-Brandt, M.C., Nielsen, J., Villadsen, J. Yeast (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Cloning, sequence, and disruption of the Saccharomyces diastaticus DAR1 gene encoding a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Wang, H.T., Rahaim, P., Robbins, P., Yocum, R.R. J. Bacteriol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD+-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation. Ansell, R., Granath, K., Hohmann, S., Thevelein, J.M., Adler, L. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Fps1, a yeast member of the MIP family of channel proteins, is a facilitator for glycerol uptake and efflux and is inactive under osmotic stress. Luyten, K., Albertyn, J., Skibbe, W.F., Prior, B.A., Ramos, J., Thevelein, J.M., Hohmann, S. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Identification of Ald6p as the target of a class of small-molecule suppressors of FK506 and their use in network dissection. Butcher, R.A., Schreiber, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Competition of electrons to enter the respiratory chain: a new regulatory mechanism of oxidative metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Bunoust, O., Devin, A., Avéret, N., Camougrand, N., Rigoulet, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Kinetic regulation of the mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by the external NADH dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Påhlman, I.L., Larsson, C., Averét, N., Bunoust, O., Boubekeur, S., Gustafsson, L., Rigoulet, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Different signalling pathways contribute to the control of GPD1 gene expression by osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rep, M., Albertyn, J., Thevelein, J.M., Prior, B.A., Hohmann, S. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Rap1p-binding sites in the saccharomyces cerevisiae GPD1 promoter are involved in its response to NaCl. Eriksson, P., Alipour, H., Adler, L., Blomberg, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. A gene encoding sn-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) complements an osmosensitive mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Larsson, K., Ansell, R., Eriksson, P., Adler, L. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Osmoregulation of fission yeast: cloning of two distinct genes encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, one of which is responsible for osmotolerance for growth. Ohmiya, R., Yamada, H., Nakashima, K., Aiba, H., Mizuno, T. Mol. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. SGD1 encodes an essential nuclear protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that affects expression of the GPD1 gene for glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Akhtar, N., Påhlman, A.K., Larsson, K., Corbett, A.H., Adler, L. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Microaerobic glycerol formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Costenoble, R., Valadi, H., Gustafsson, L., Niklasson, C., Franzén, C.J. Yeast (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic engineering of brewing yeast to reduce the content of ethanol in beer. Nevoigt, E., Pilger, R., Mast-Gerlach, E., Schmidt, U., Freihammer, S., Eschenbrenner, M., Garbe, L., Stahl, U. FEMS Yeast Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Phospholipase C interacts with Sgd1p and is required for expression of GPD1 and osmoresistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Lin, H., Nguyen, P., Vancura, A. Mol. Genet. Genomics (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Monitoring stress-related genes during the process of biomass propagation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains used for wine making. Pérez-Torrado, R., Bruno-Bárcena, J.M., Matallana, E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Study of the first hours of microvinification by the use of osmotic stress-response genes as probes. Pérez-Torrado, R., Carrasco, P., Aranda, A., Gimeno-Alcañiz, J., Pérez-Ortín, J.E., Matallana, E., del Olmo, M.L. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Enhanced glycerol production in Shochu yeast by heat-shock treatment is due to prolonged transcription of GPD1. Kajiwara, Y., Ogawa, K., Takashita, H., Omori, T. J. Biosci. Bioeng. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. Improved ethanol production by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Valadi, H., Larsson, C., Gustafsson, L. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Protein expression during exponential growth in 0.7 M NaCl medium of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Norbeck, J., Blomberg, A. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Construction of a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) YAC library and isolation of a Hor1-specific clone. Kleine, M., Michalek, W., Graner, A., Herrmann, R.G., Jung, C. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
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