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Gene Review

chs-1  -  Protein CHS-1

Caenorhabditis elegans

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High impact information on chs-1

  • Chitin deposition in these two sites is likely regulated by the activities of chs-1 (T25G3.2) and chs-2 (F48A11.1), respectively [1].
  • Reducing chs-1 gene activity by RNAi led to eggs that were fragile and permeable to small molecules, and in the most severe case, absence of embryonic cell division [1].
  • The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively [1].
  • Polyclonal antibodies were raised against a peptide expressed from a recombinant cDNA fragment of Bm-chs-1; immunostaining detected CHS protein in oocytes and early to midstage embryos [2].
  • The full genomic and cDNA sequences were obtained for the B. malayi chs gene (Bm-chs-1); the predicted amino acid sequence is highly similar, over a large region, to two CHS sequences of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and also to two insect CHS sequences [2].

Biological context of chs-1

  • These studies also demonstrate that chitin synthesis may not be restricted to eggshell formation in nematodes, as the Bm-chs-1 gene is transcribed in life cycle stages other than adult females [2].
  • By screening a BAC library of genomic DNA from T. castaneum (Tc) with a DNA probe encoding the catalytic domain of a putative Tribolium CHS, several clones that contained CHS genes were identified [3].

Anatomical context of chs-1


Associations of chs-1 with chemical compounds

  • The final step of incorporation of GlcNAc into the chitin polymer is catalyzed by the enzyme chitin synthase [CS] [4].
  • The polyoxins and other structurally-related antibiotics like nikkomycins are strong competitive inhibitors of the polymerizing enzyme chitin synthase [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of chs-1

  • Fragments of putative chitin synthase (chs) genes from two filarial species (Brugia malayi and Dirofilaria immitis) were amplified by PCR using degenerate primers [2].
  • RT-PCR analysis shows CS message in whole non-blood-fed females, whole blood-fed females, non-blood-fed midguts and in midguts dissected at different time points post-blood-feeding [4].


  1. The chitin synthase genes chs-1 and chs-2 are essential for C. elegans development and responsible for chitin deposition in the eggshell and pharynx, respectively. Zhang, Y., Foster, J.M., Nelson, L.S., Ma, D., Carlow, C.K. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Chitin synthase in the filarial parasite, Brugia malayi. Harris, M.T., Lai, K., Arnold, K., Martinez, H.F., Specht, C.A., Fuhrman, J.A. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of two chitin synthase genes of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and alternate exon usage in one of the genes during development. Arakane, Y., Hogenkamp, D.G., Zhu, Y.C., Kramer, K.J., Specht, C.A., Beeman, R.W., Kanost, M.R., Muthukrishnan, S. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Cloning and characterization of a chitin synthase cDNA from the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Ibrahim, G.H., Smartt, C.T., Kiley, L.M., Christensen, B.M. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Chitin synthesis and degradation as targets for pesticide action. Cohen, E. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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