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Gene Review

CP  -  coat protein

Pelargonium flower break virus

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Disease relevance of CP

  • TCV-CPm, which is able to move systemically in both the TCV-susceptible ecotype Columbia (Col-0) and the TCV-resistant ecotype Dijon (Di-0), produced a reduced level of CP and no detectable virions in infected plants [1].
  • The Agrobacterium infiltration system was used to demonstrate that TCV CP suppressed the local PTGS as strongly as several previously reported virus-coded suppressors and that the action of TCV CP eliminated the small interfering RNAs associated with PTGS [2].
  • The turnip crinkle carmovirus (TCV) coat protein (CP) is folded into R (RNA-binding), S (shell), and P (protruding) domains [3].
  • The coat protein (CP) of certain plant viruses may reassemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs) and these protein cages may serve as potential drug delivery platforms [4].
  • When CP was expressed from a Potato virus X (PVX) vector, it was able to enhance the symptom severity and to increase the accumulation of PVX RNA [5].

High impact information on CP

  • We previously showed that a sat-RNA (sat-RNA C) of turnip crinkle virus (TCV), which normally intensifies symptoms of TCV, is able to attenuate symptoms when TCV contains the coat protein (CP) of cardamine chlorotic fleck virus (TCV-CPCCFV) [1].
  • We have now determined that sat-RNA C also attenuates symptoms of TCV containing an alteration in the initiating AUG of the CP open reading frame (TCV-CPm) [1].
  • Our results suggest that in the presence of a reduced level of a possibly altered CP, sat-RNA C reduces virus long-distance movement in a manner that is independent of the salicylic acid-dependent defense pathway [1].
  • The genomic region examined was 1,828 nucleotides (nt) long and comprised the coding sequences for the movement (p7 and p12) and the coat (CP) proteins, as well as flanking segments including the entire 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) [6].
  • These data suggest that TCV CP functions to suppress RNA silencing at an early initiation step, likely by interfering the function of the Dicer-like RNase in plants [2].

Biological context of CP

  • Some constraints limiting viral heterogeneity could be inferred from sequence analyses, such as the conservation of the amino acid sequences of p7 and of the shell domain of the CP, the maintenance of a leucine zipper motif in p12, and the preservation of a particular folding in the 3' UTR [6].
  • The accumulation kinetics of the coat protein (CP) and the p7 movement protein (MP) as well as their subcellular localization were also studied [7].
  • Using a green fluorescence protein-based transient suppression system, the coat protein (CP) of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) was identified as a strong gene-silencing suppressor [5].
  • The carboxy-termini of the CP of both isolates are identical; therefore, the avirulence determinant likely consists of the RNA sequence itself [8].
  • These mutants include single amino acid substitution mutants that are known to have lost their ability to interact with TIP, as well as deletion mutants of TCV CP that are of different sizes and from different regions of the protein [9].

Anatomical context of CP

  • The accumulation of TCV subviral RNAs in plants and protoplasts was also found to be strongly influenced by the presence or absence of the wild-type TCV CP [10].

Associations of CP with chemical compounds

  • VLPs were readily produced by destabilizing the HCRSV in 8 M urea or Tris buffer pH 8, in the absence of calcium ions, followed by removal of viral RNA by ultrahigh-speed centrifugation and the reassembly of the CP in sodium acetate buffer pH 5 [4].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CP

  • A remarkable covariation, involving five specific amino acid sites, was found in the CP of isolates largely propagated in the local lesion host Chenopodium quinoa and in the progeny of a PFBV variant subjected to serial passages in this host [6].
  • Particles of several symptom-modulating TCV coat protein (CP) mutants were pretreated at pH 5.5, 7.5 or 8.5 and their conformations compared by agarose gel electrophoresis to those of wild-type particles [11].


  1. Satellite RNA-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis involves a reduction in virus movement. Kong, Q., Wang, J., Simon, A.E. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The coat protein of turnip crinkle virus suppresses posttranscriptional gene silencing at an early initiation step. Qu, F., Ren, T., Morris, T.J. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Mutational analyses of the putative calcium binding site and hinge of the turnip crinkle virus coat protein. Lin, B., Heaton, L.A. Virology (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. In vitro-reassembled plant virus-like particles for loading of polyacids. Ren, Y., Wong, S.M., Lim, L.Y. J. Gen. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Host-induced avirulence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus mutants correlates with reduced gene-silencing suppression activity. Meng, C., Chen, J., Peng, J., Wong, S.M. J. Gen. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Insights into the selective pressures restricting Pelargonium flower break virus genome variability: Evidence for host adaptation. Rico, P., Ivars, P., Elena, S.F., Hernández, C. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Spatio-temporal analysis of the RNAs, coat and movement (p7) proteins of Carnation mottle virus in Chenopodium quinoa plants. García-Castillo, S., Sánchez-Pina, M.A., Pallás, V. J. Gen. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization of a Melon necrotic spot virus strain that overcomes the resistance in melon and nonhost plants. Díaz, J.A., Nieto, C., Moriones, E., Truniger, V., Aranda, M.A. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. RNA silencing-suppressor function of Turnip crinkle virus coat protein cannot be attributed to its interaction with the Arabidopsis protein TIP. Choi, C.W., Qu, F., Ren, T., Ye, X., Morris, T.J. J. Gen. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. The coat protein of turnip crinkle virus is involved in subviral RNA-mediated symptom modulation and accumulation. Kong, Q., Oh, J.W., Carpenter, C.D., Simon, A.E. Virology (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Several symptom-modulating mutations in the coat protein of turnip crinkle carmovirus result in particles with aberrant conformational properties. Heaton, L.A., Laakso, M.M. J. Gen. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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