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Chemical Compound Review

Coramine     N,N-diethylpyridine-3- carboxamide

Synonyms: Astrocar, Coramin, Cordiamine, Corethamid, Nizethamid, ...
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Disease relevance of Tonocard


High impact information on Tonocard

  • We previously showed that a sat-RNA (sat-RNA C) of turnip crinkle virus (TCV), which normally intensifies symptoms of TCV, is able to attenuate symptoms when TCV contains the coat protein (CP) of cardamine chlorotic fleck virus (TCV-CPCCFV) [6].
  • However, when the coat protein open reading frame (ORF) of TCV was precisely exchanged with that of cardamine chlorotic fleck virus, sat-RNA C attenuated the moderate symptoms of the chimeric virus when Arabidopsis plants were coinoculated with the chimeric virus [7].
  • Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were employed to examine the effects of solvent environment on rotational barriers in two drugs known to cause widespread stimulation in the mammalian central nervous system: ethamivan and nikethamide [8].
  • Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance techniques were employed to examine the effects of solvent environment on rotational barriers in a series of molecules structurally-related to the analeptic, nikethamide: N,N-dimethylnicotinamide, N,N-di-n-propylnicotinamide, and 1-nicotinoyl piperidine [9].
  • An increase in rotamer lifetime, corresponding to a more polar environment, would be expected to enhance the kinetics of nikethamide association to the receptor site [10].

Biological context of Tonocard

  • The allohexaploidization and the following hybridization with a diploid species exemplify the ongoing dynamic processes of speciation in the genus Cardamine [11].
  • To this end, two groups of women, hyperandrogenic anovulatory (n = 4) and early follicular phase (n = 4) normally-cycling controls, were subjected to continuous blood withdrawal over 24 hours with a portable Cormed pump (Cormed Inc., Middleport, NY) and to exogenous stimulation with human chorionic gonadotropin [12].
  • Allopolyploid origin of Cardamine asarifolia (Brassicaceae): incongruence between plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences solved by a single-copy nuclear gene [11].
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diploid representatives from the related polyploid complexes of Cardamine amara, C. pratensis and C. raphanifolia (Brassicaceae), were studied to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among the complexes and among the individual taxa included [13].
  • In addition, the percentage molar nucleotide composition of the genome of the PD strain of Kennedya yellow mosaic virus and the percentage molar amino acid composition of the coat proteins of cacao yellow mosaic, Kennedya yellow mosaic and turnip yellow mosaic (Cardamine strain) viruses were estimated [14].

Anatomical context of Tonocard


Associations of Tonocard with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Tonocard

  • In order to determine if its role is conserved in other plants, we isolated AGL20 orthologs from Brassica campestris, Cardamine flexuosa and Draba nemorosa [18].
  • The virion protein genes, and 3' untranslated regions, of six variants of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus (TYMV) that produced different symptoms in their native host Cardamine robusta and in Chinese cabbage plants, have been sequenced [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tonocard


  1. The genomic sequence of cardamine chlorotic fleck carmovirus. Skotnicki, M.L., Mackenzie, A.M., Torronen, M., Gibbs, A.J. J. Gen. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Open reading frames of turnip crinkle virus involved in satellite symptom expression and incompatibility with Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Dijon. Oh, J.W., Kong, Q., Song, C., Carpenter, C.D., Simon, A.E. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Importance of sequence and structural elements within a viral replication repressor. Zhang, J., Simon, A.E. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Nikethamide for hiccough. Gilston, A. Anaesthesia. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. RNA hybrid mismatch polymorphisms in Australian populations of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus. Skotnicki, M.L., Mackenzie, A.M., Ding, S.W., Mo, J.Q., Gibbs, A.J. Arch. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Satellite RNA-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis involves a reduction in virus movement. Kong, Q., Wang, J., Simon, A.E. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Symptom attenuation by a normally virulent satellite RNA of turnip crinkle virus is associated with the coat protein open reading frame. Kong, Q., Oh, J.W., Simon, A.E. Plant Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Solvent dependency of rotational barriers in ethamivan and comparison to nikethamide. Rosenthal, L.S., Curran, E., Bean, J.W., Nelson, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Solvent interactions with N, N-dialkylnicotinamides and their effects on rotational barriers. Bean, J.W., Nelson, D.J., Wright, G.E. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of solvent polarity upon rotational barriers in nikethamide. Bean, J.W., Nelson, D.J. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  11. Allopolyploid origin of Cardamine asarifolia (Brassicaceae): incongruence between plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences solved by a single-copy nuclear gene. Lihová, J., Shimizu, K.K., Marhold, K. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Ovarian hyperandrogenism: the role of and sensitivity to gonadotropins. McClamrock, H.D., Bass, K.M., Adashi, E.Y. Fertil. Steril. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Comparative ITS and AFLP analysis of diploid Cardamine (Brassicaceae) taxa from closely related polyploid complexes. Marhold, K., Lihová, J., Perný, M., Bleeker, W. Ann. Bot. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The classification of tymoviruses by cDNA-RNA hybridization and other measures of relatedness. Blok, J., Gibbs, A., Mackenzie, A. Arch. Virol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Simultaneous determination of nikethamide and lidocaine in human blood and cerebrospinal fluid by high performance liquid chromatography. Chen, L., Liao, L., Zuo, Z., Yan, Y., Yang, L., Fu, Q., Chen, Y., Hou, J. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Animal studies on the treatment of poisoning by amitraz (a formamidine pesticide) and xylene. Turnbull, G.J. Human toxicology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity and urinary D-glucaric acid excretion in newborns in the first week of life. Effects of phenobarbital and nicethamide combination. Talafant, E., Hosková, A., Pojerová, A. Acta paediatrica Scandinavica. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. The function of the flowering time gene AGL20 is conserved in Crucifers. Kim, K.W., Shin, J.H., Moon, J., Kim, M., Lee, J., Park, M.C., Lee, I. Mol. Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Virion protein sequence variation among Australian isolates of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus. Hayden, C.M., Mackenzie, A.M., Gibbs, A.J. Arch. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Constant infusion schedule for adriamycin: a phase I-II clinical trial of a 30-day schedule by ambulatory pump delivery system. Lokich, J., Bothe, A., Zipoli, T., Green, R., Sonneborn, H., Paul, S., Philips, D. J. Clin. Oncol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  21. Surgery in patients with cystic fibrosis. Olsen, M.M., Gauderer, M.W., Girz, M.K., Izant, R.J. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Excretion and metabolism of nikethamide in the horse. Delbeke, F.T., Debackere, M. British journal of sports medicine. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Portable infusion pumps in ambulatory cancer chemotherapy. Plasse, T., Ohnuma, T., Bruckner, H., Chamberlain, K., Mass, T., Holland, J.F. Cancer (1982) [Pubmed]
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