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Gene Review

DX  -  dwarfism

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of DX


High impact information on DX

  • Mutations in the limbin gene previously associated with dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle are not responsible for dwarfism in the American Angus breed [6].
  • Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism in calves [7].
  • The numerous morphological apomorphies of Myotragus, most strikingly its dwarfism, frontal eyes, and ever-growing incisors, obscure its phylogenetic relationships with extant bovids [8].
  • In summary, a novel phenotype for Laron dwarfism in Bos indicus cattle was associated with underexpression of GHR 1A mRNA, but not other GHR mRNA variants in liver [9].
  • Three calves from a herd of beef cattle were examined because of disproportionate dwarfism and excessive extension of metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints [3].

Chemical compound and disease context of DX


Biological context of DX


Anatomical context of DX


  1. Glycine 119 of bovine growth hormone is critical for growth-promoting activity. Chen, W.Y., Wight, D.C., Mehta, B.V., Wagner, T.E., Kopchick, J.J. Mol. Endocrinol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Diabetic nephropathy: molecular analysis of extracellular matrix and clinical studies update. Striker, G.E., Eastman, R.D., Striker, L.J. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Congenital joint laxity and disproportionate dwarfism in a herd of beef cattle. Cebra, C.K., Cebra, M.L., Ikede, B.O. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Improvement in clinical condition and thymus morphologic features associated with growth hormone treatment of immunodeficient dwarf dogs. Roth, J.A., Kaeberle, M.L., Grier, R.L., Hopper, J.G., Spiegel, H.E., McAllister, H.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  5. Possible association of thymus dysfunction with fading syndromes in puppies and kittens. Roth, J.A. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in the limbin gene previously associated with dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle are not responsible for dwarfism in the American Angus breed. Mishra, B.P., Reecy, J.M. Anim. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Congenital joint laxity and dwarfism in calves. Gunn, G., Caldow, G., Lowman, B. Vet. Rec. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Mitochondrial DNA from Myotragus balearicus, an extinct bovid from the Balearic Islands. Lalueza-Fox, C., Bertranpetit, J., Alcover, J.A., Shailer, N., Hagelberg, E. J. Exp. Zool. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. A novel phenotype for Lardon dwarfism in miniature Bos indicus cattle suggests that the expression of growth hormone receptor 1A in liver is required for normal growth. Liu, J., Boyd, C.K., Kobayashi, Y., Chase, C.C., Hammond, A.C., Olson, T.A., Elsasser, T.H., Lucy, M.C. Domest. Anim. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Assessment of the role of manganese in congenital joint laxity and dwarfism in calves. Hidiroglou, M., Ivan, M., Bryan, M.K., Ribble, C.S., Janzen, E.D., Proulx, J.G., Elliot, J.I. Ann. Rech. Vet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-1, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus concentrations in pregnant beef cows and calves from a herd with a known history of congenital joint laxity and dwarfism. Hidiroglou, M., Ivan, M., Proulx, J.G., Davicco, M.J., Coxam, V., Barlet, J.P. Res. Vet. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Morphological changes of epiphyseal plate in the long bone of chondrodysplastic dwarfism in Japanese brown cattle. Moritomo, Y., Ishibashi, T., Miyamoto, H. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Chondrodysplasia in Australian Dexter cattle. Harper, P.A., Latter, M.R., Nicholas, F.W., Cook, R.W., Gill, P.A. Aust. Vet. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
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