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Gene Review

pdm2  -  POU domain protein 2

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12287, CG15486, CG15487, Dmel\CG12287, Oct-2, ...
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Disease relevance of pdm2

  • In the CNS, miti is required for the elaboration of the NB4-2-->GMC-1-->RP2/sib lineage. miti is initially required in this lineage to establish the identity of the parental ganglion mother cell, GMC-1. miti must then be down-regulated to allow the asymmetric division of GMC-1 into the RP2 and its sibling cell [1].

High impact information on pdm2

  • We have isolated crustacean homologues of two genes that have wing-specific functions in insects, pdm (nubbin) and apterous [2].
  • We demonstrate that the protein product encoded by a POU homeo domain gene (dPOU28/pdm-2) is expressed in the cell nuclei of a subset of NBs and GMCs [3].
  • Although not affecting expression of early neuroblast markers, the deletion of the region containing all three genes correlates with loss of expression of CNS determinants including fushi tarazu, pdm-2 and even-skipped [4].
  • Upregulation of Mitimere and Nubbin acts through cyclin E to confer self-renewing asymmetric division potential to neural precursor cells [5].
  • In GMC-1 of the RP2/sib lineage, Slit promotes asymmetric division by down regulating two POU proteins, Nubbin and Mitimere [6].

Biological context of pdm2

  • Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of neighboring genes; the remaining 18 do not appear to have enhancer activity [7].
  • These POU domain genes, pdm-1 and pdm-2, are expressed at high levels during early embryogenesis and at lower levels throughout the rest of development [8].
  • We examine the expression of two developmental genes, pdm/nubbin and apterous, that participate in the specification of insects' wings and are expressed in particular crustacean epipods/gills [9].
  • Using these dominant negative transgenes, together with deletions and a duplication for the gene, we show that miti is required during segmentation and neurogenesis [1].

Anatomical context of pdm2


Other interactions of pdm2

  • We have characterized two Drosophila POU genes designated dPOU-19 and dPOU-28 [11].
  • The spatial expression patterns of the pdm-2 and Cf1a genes show that they probably play multiple roles during development: an early role in specific ectodermal cells, and a subsequent role in the embryonic nervous system [12].
  • In spiders (terrestrial chelicerates), pdm/nubbin and apterous are expressed in successive segmental primordia that give rise to book lungs, lateral tubular tracheae, and spinnerets, novel structures that are used by spiders to breathe on land and to spin their webs [9].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pdm2

  • In situ hybridization to D. virilis embryos shows that virtually all aspects of pdm-2 expression are conserved between D. virilis and D. melanogaster [13].


  1. The Drosophila miti-mere gene, a member of the POU family, is required for the specification of the RP2/sibling lineage during neurogenesis. Bhat, K.M., Schedl, P. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Evolutionary origin of insect wings from ancestral gills. Averof, M., Cohen, S.M. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. The role of a Drosophila POU homeo domain gene in the specification of neural precursor cell identity in the developing embryonic central nervous system. Yang, X., Yeo, S., Dick, T., Chia, W. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. The mesoderm determinant snail collaborates with related zinc-finger proteins to control Drosophila neurogenesis. Ashraf, S.I., Hu, X., Roote, J., Ip, Y.T. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Upregulation of Mitimere and Nubbin acts through cyclin E to confer self-renewing asymmetric division potential to neural precursor cells. Bhat, K.M., Apsel, N. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Slit signaling promotes the terminal asymmetric division of neural precursor cells in the Drosophila CNS. Mehta, B., Bhat, K.M. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Computational identification of developmental enhancers: conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clusters in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila pseudoobscura. Berman, B.P., Pfeiffer, B.D., Laverty, T.R., Salzberg, S.L., Rubin, G.M., Eisen, M.B., Celniker, S.E. Genome Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Characterization of two Drosophila POU domain genes, related to oct-1 and oct-2, and the regulation of their expression patterns. Lloyd, A., Sakonju, S. Mech. Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Diverse adaptations of an ancestral gill: a common evolutionary origin for wings, breathing organs, and spinnerets. Damen, W.G., Saridaki, T., Averof, M. Curr. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Tag team specification of a neural precursor in the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system. Skeath, J.B. Bioessays (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Two closely linked Drosophila POU domain genes are expressed in neuroblasts and sensory elements. Dick, T., Yang, X.H., Yeo, S.L., Chia, W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Isolation of a family of Drosophila POU domain genes expressed in early development. Billin, A.N., Cockerill, K.A., Poole, S.J. Mech. Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Conservation of complex expression domains of the pdm-2 POU domain gene between Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster. Poole, S.J. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
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