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Gene Review

DLX5  -  distal-less homeobox 5

Gallus gallus

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High impact information on DLX5

  • Endogenous levels of Dlx5 are 3-fold higher in hypertrophic versus non-hypertrophic cells by real-time PCR analysis, and overexpression of Dlx5 in non-hypertrophic chondrocytes activates the proximal Col10a1 promoter 3-fold [1].
  • In situ hybridization studies indicated that Dlx5 is expressed in chick calvarial osteoblasts (cCOB) in vivo [2].
  • To study the effect of overexpression of Dlx5 on osteoblast differentiation, we infected primary osteoblast cultures from 15-day-old embryonal chicken calvaria with replication competent retroviral vectors [RCASBP(A)] expressing Dlx5 or control replication competent avian splice acceptor brianhightiter polymerase subtype A [RCASBP(A)] [2].
  • DLX5 positions the neural crest and preplacode region at the border of the neural plate [3].
  • The disruption of cell contacts temporarily delayed onset of gene expression but by 48 h both Msx2 and Dlx5 were expressed [4].

Biological context of DLX5


Anatomical context of DLX5

  • In particular, the developmental expression pattern is characterized by an early appearance of cDlx transcript in the prospective forebrain region of gastrulating embryos [5].
  • Our results suggest that Dlx5 plays an important role in inducing calvarial osteoblast differentiation [2].

Other interactions of DLX5

  • We report the cloning and expression pattern of the chicken DLX3 gene, a homeobox gene highly related to the DLX5 gene with regard to both the encoded protein structure and the expression pattern [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DLX5


  1. SP3/SP1 transcription activity regulates specific expression of collagen type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes. Magee, C., Nurminskaya, M., Faverman, L., Galera, P., Linsenmayer, T.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Overexpression of Dlx5 in chicken calvarial cells accelerates osteoblastic differentiation. Tadic, T., Dodig, M., Erceg, I., Marijanovic, I., Mina, M., Kalajzic, Z., Velonis, D., Kronenberg, M.S., Kosher, R.A., Ferrari, D., Lichtler, A.C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. DLX5 positions the neural crest and preplacode region at the border of the neural plate. McLarren, K.W., Litsiou, A., Streit, A. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Cell dissociation experiments reveal that positional information operates in the chicken frontonasal mass. Kawakami, M., Inoue, M., Richman, J.M. Genesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Chick homeobox gene cDlx expression demarcates the forebrain anlage, indicating the onset of forebrain regional specification at gastrulation. Borghjid, S., Siddiqui, M.A. Dev. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression of DLX3 in chick embryos. Pera, E., Kessel, M. Mech. Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
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