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Gene Review

tud  -  tudor

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG9450, Dmel\CG9450, Maternal protein tudor, TUD, Tud, ...
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High impact information on tud

  • Developmental analysis of a newly isolated maternal effect grandchildless mutant, tudor (tud), in Drosophila melanogaster indicates that tud+ activity is required during oogenesis for the determination and/or formation of primordial germ cells (pole cells) and for normal embryonic abdominal segmentation [1].
  • Polytene chromosome staining, chromatin immunoprecipitation, direct messenger RNA analysis, and transient cotransfection assays identified the Drosophila gene tudor as containing a TRF1-responsive promoter [2].
  • Genetics has revealed three additional genes, staufen, vasa, and tudor, that are also essential for pole plasm formation [3].
  • Finally, we show that in the pole plasm, Oskar protein, like Vasa and Tudor, is a component of polar granules, the germ-line-specific RNP structures [3].
  • Taken together, these results indicate that the tud product is a novel protein required during oogenesis for establishment of a functional center of morphogenetic activity in the posterior tip of the Drosophila embryo [4].

Biological context of tud

  • Finally, we show that Tudor can be targeted to the nuage in the absence of Sm methylation by Capsul??en, indicating that Tudor localization and Sm methylation are separate processes [5].
  • Eleven chromosomal deficiencies and several rearrangements in the Pu-tud region of chromosome 2R have been generated and examined cytologically [6].
  • All new alleles fully complement tud for both lethal and grandchildless phenotypes [6].
  • Mutations in the tudor locus of Drosophila affect two distinct determinative processes in embryogenesis; segmentation of the abdomen and determination of the primordial germ cells [7].
  • Analysis of embryos of different maternal genotypes indicates that the average number of pole cells formed is correlated with the amount of tudor protein that accumulates in the germ plasm [7].

Anatomical context of tud

  • In particular, we show that the nuage and pole plasm localization of Tudor, an essential component for germ cell formation, are abolished in csul mutant germ cells [5].
  • During oogenesis, tud mRNA appears to be present in the oocyte precursor within the germarial cysts, and in stages 1-3 it accumulates within the developing oocyte [4].
  • Very little is known about the specific role of this organelle, but in Drosophila three nuage components have been identified, the Vasa, Tudor and Aubergine proteins [8].

Other interactions of tud

  • Homologues of Drosophila germ cell determinant genes such as vasa, nanos and tudor have recently been implicated in development of the male germline in mice [9].
  • Mst89B transcripts were present throughout spermatogenesis in germline-derived cells, consistent with northern analysis which showed that they were absent in the offspring of tudor flies that lack a germline [10].
  • Here we show that Tudor-SN (tudor staphylococcal nuclease)--a protein containing five staphylococcal/micrococcal nuclease domains and a tudor domain--is a component of the RISC enzyme in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila and mammals [11].
  • There are significant structural similarities to the Tudor, PWWP, and chromo domains, suggesting probable evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between the MBT repeats and these domains [12].


  1. tudor, a gene required for assembly of the germ plasm in Drosophila melanogaster. Boswell, R.E., Mahowald, A.P. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Promoter-selective properties of the TBP-related factor TRF1. Holmes, M.C., Tjian, R. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Oskar protein interaction with Vasa represents an essential step in polar granule assembly. Breitwieser, W., Markussen, F.H., Horstmann, H., Ephrussi, A. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. tudor, a posterior-group gene of Drosophila melanogaster, encodes a novel protein and an mRNA localized during mid-oogenesis. Golumbeski, G.S., Bardsley, A., Tax, F., Boswell, R.E. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Arginine methyltransferase Capsuleen is essential for methylation of spliceosomal Sm proteins and germ cell formation in Drosophila. Anne, J., Ollo, R., Ephrussi, A., Mechler, B.M. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. A cytogenetic analysis of the Punch-tudor region of chromosome 2R in Drosophila melanogaster. O'Donnell, J., Boswell, R., Reynolds, T., Mackay, W. Genetics (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Distribution of tudor protein in the Drosophila embryo suggests separation of functions based on site of localization. Bardsley, A., McDonald, K., Boswell, R.E. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Live imaging of nuage and polar granules: evidence against a precursor-product relationship and a novel role for Oskar in stabilization of polar granule components. Snee, M.J., Macdonald, P.M. J. Cell. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Expression of the tudor-related gene Tdrd5 during development of the male germline in mice. Smith, J.M., Bowles, J., Wilson, M., Teasdale, R.D., Koopman, P. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. A testis-specifically expressed gene is embedded within a cluster of maternally expressed genes at 89B in Drosophila melanogaster. Stebbings, L., Grimes, B.R., Bownes, M. Dev. Genes Evol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. A micrococcal nuclease homologue in RNAi effector complexes. Caudy, A.A., Ketting, R.F., Hammond, S.M., Denli, A.M., Bathoorn, A.M., Tops, B.B., Silva, J.M., Myers, M.M., Hannon, G.J., Plasterk, R.H. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Crystal structure of the malignant brain tumor (MBT) repeats in Sex Comb on Midleg-like 2 (SCML2). Sathyamurthy, A., Allen, M.D., Murzin, A.G., Bycroft, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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