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Gene Review

stau  -  staufen

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG5753, Dmel\CG5753, Dmstau, Maternal effect protein staufen, STAU, ...
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Disease relevance of stau


High impact information on stau

  • Staufen binds prospero RNA in its 3'UTR [4].
  • Hence staufen also acts zygotically, downstream of inscuteable, to effect aspects of neuroblast asymmetry [4].
  • Here we show that staufen protein colocalizes with bcd mRNA at the anterior, and that this localization depends upon its association with the mRNA [5].
  • We report the cloning and sequencing of staufen and show that staufen protein is one of the first molecules to localize to the posterior pole of the oocyte, perhaps in association with oskar RNA [6].
  • We show that genes known to interact directly with Hb are not responsible for its spatial precision, but that the maternal gene staufen may be crucial [7].

Biological context of stau


Anatomical context of stau

  • We have shown previously that endogenous STAU associates specifically with injected bcd mRNA 3'-untranslated region (UTR), resulting in the formation of characteristic RNA-protein particles that are transported along microtubules of the mitotic spindles in a directed manner [11].
  • miranda localizes staufen and prospero asymmetrically in mitotic neuroblasts and epithelial cells in early Drosophila embryogenesis [12].
  • Inscuteable becomes uniform at the cortex, whereas Prospero and Staufen become cytoplasmic; inhibitor washout leads to recovery of microfilaments and asymmetric localization of all three proteins [13].
  • Here we use in vitro culture of neuroblasts to investigate the role of intrinsic and extrinsic cues and the cytoskeleton in asymmetric localization of Inscuteable, Prospero and Staufen proteins [13].
  • When Stau1 or Stau2 functions are compromised in embryos by injecting antisense morpholino modified oligonucleotides or dominant-negative Stau peptides, germ layer patterning is not affected [14].

Associations of stau with chemical compounds

  • Staufen- and FMRP-Containing Neuronal RNPs Are Structurally and Functionally Related to Somatic P Bodies [15].
  • We show that while the staufen-like protein does not co-purify with microtubules from ovaries using standard procedures it does so under conditions of motor-entrapment, specifically in the presence of AMP-PNP [16].
  • A recombinant dsRNA binding domain from the Drosophila staufen protein and human protein kinase R were crosslinked by UV or methylene blue to a series of dsRNAs [17].
  • In cell fractionation and sucrose gradient assays, Staufen co-fractionates with intact ribosomes and polysomes, but not with the isolated 40 S ribosomal subunit [18].

Physical interactions of stau

  • Upon injection into the embryo, bcd transcripts specifically interact with staufen, and we have mapped the sequences required to three regions of the 3'UTR, each of which is predicted to form a long stem-loop [5].
  • Thus, a complex containing oskar mRNA and Staufen may be transported along microtubules to the posterior pole by kinesin I [19].
  • The RNA-binding protein Staufen from rat brain interacts with protein phosphatase-1 [20].

Regulatory relationships of stau

  • Injection of the different bcd RNA variants into living Drosophila embryos shows that all elements that inhibit RNA dimerization in vitro prevent formation of localized particles containing Staufen [21].

Other interactions of stau

  • In addition, we discuss the possible biological role of the Oskar-Staufen interaction [22].
  • Furthermore, miranda function is required for the asymmetric localization of Staufen [23].
  • We have explored interactions between these gene products at the molecular level and find that Oskar interacts directly with Vasa and Staufen, in a yeast two-hybrid assay [22].
  • In the model, Stau is released from both ends of the embryo and relocalizes hb RNA by increasing its mobility [8].
  • Staufen protein associates with the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA to form particles that move in a microtubule-dependent manner [5].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of stau


  1. A human sequence homologue of Staufen is an RNA-binding protein that is associated with polysomes and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Marión, R.M., Fortes, P., Beloso, A., Dotti, C., Ortín, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutational analysis of the vaccinia virus E3 protein defines amino acid residues involved in E3 binding to double-stranded RNA. Ho, C.K., Shuman, S. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Solution structure of the ribosome-associated cold shock response protein Yfia of Escherichia coli. Rak, A., Kalinin, A., Shcherbakov, D., Bayer, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Inscuteable and Staufen mediate asymmetric localization and segregation of prospero RNA during Drosophila neuroblast cell divisions. Li, P., Yang, X., Wasser, M., Cai, Y., Chia, W. Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Staufen protein associates with the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA to form particles that move in a microtubule-dependent manner. Ferrandon, D., Elphick, L., Nüsslein-Volhard, C., St Johnston, D. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Staufen, a gene required to localize maternal RNAs in the Drosophila egg. St Johnston, D., Beuchle, D., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Establishment of developmental precision and proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Houchmandzadeh, B., Wieschaus, E., Leibler, S. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Model for the robust establishment of precise proportions in the early Drosophila embryo. Aegerter-Wilmsen, T., Aegerter, C.M., Bisseling, T. J. Theor. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Cappuccino, a Drosophila maternal effect gene required for polarity of the egg and embryo, is related to the vertebrate limb deformity locus. Emmons, S., Phan, H., Calley, J., Chen, W., James, B., Manseau, L. Genes Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Mouse staufen genes are expressed in germ cells during oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Saunders, P.T., Pathirana, S., Maguire, S.M., Doyle, M., Wood, T., Bownes, M. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. RNA-RNA interaction is required for the formation of specific bicoid mRNA 3' UTR-STAUFEN ribonucleoprotein particles. Ferrandon, D., Koch, I., Westhof, E., Nüsslein-Volhard, C. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. miranda localizes staufen and prospero asymmetrically in mitotic neuroblasts and epithelial cells in early Drosophila embryogenesis. Matsuzaki, F., Ohshiro, T., Ikeshima-Kataoka, H., Izumi, H. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Extrinsic cues, intrinsic cues and microfilaments regulate asymmetric protein localization in Drosophila neuroblasts. Broadus, J., Doe, C.Q. Curr. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Zebrafish Staufen1 and Staufen2 are required for the survival and migration of primordial germ cells. Ramasamy, S., Wang, H., Quach, H.N., Sampath, K. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Staufen- and FMRP-Containing Neuronal RNPs Are Structurally and Functionally Related to Somatic P Bodies. Barbee, S.A., Estes, P.S., Cziko, A.M., Hillebrand, J., Luedeman, R.A., Coller, J.M., Johnson, N., Howlett, I.C., Geng, C., Ueda, R., Brand, A.H., Newbury, S.F., Wilhelm, J.E., Levine, R.B., Nakamura, A., Parker, R., Ramaswami, M. Neuron (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. A staufen-like RNA-binding protein in translocation channels linking nurse cells to oocytes in Notonecta shows nucleotide-dependent attachment to microtubules. Hurst, S., Talbot, N.J., Stebbings, H. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of double-stranded RNA-protein interactions by methylene blue-mediated photo-crosslinking. Liu, Z.R., Wilkie, A.M., Clemens, M.J., Smith, C.W. RNA (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Characterization of Staufen 1 ribonucleoprotein complexes. Brendel, C., Rehbein, M., Kreienkamp, H.J., Buck, F., Richter, D., Kindler, S. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. A function for kinesin I in the posterior transport of oskar mRNA and Staufen protein. Brendza, R.P., Serbus, L.R., Duffy, J.B., Saxton, W.M. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. The RNA-binding protein Staufen from rat brain interacts with protein phosphatase-1. Monshausen, M., Rehbein, M., Richter, D., Kindler, S. J. Neurochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Dimerization of the 3'UTR of bicoid mRNA involves a two-step mechanism. Wagner, C., Palacios, I., Jaeger, L., St Johnston, D., Ehresmann, B., Ehresmann, C., Brunel, C. J. Mol. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Oskar protein interaction with Vasa represents an essential step in polar granule assembly. Breitwieser, W., Markussen, F.H., Horstmann, H., Ephrussi, A. Genes Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. Miranda as a multidomain adapter linking apically localized Inscuteable and basally localized Staufen and Prospero during asymmetric cell division in Drosophila. Shen, C.P., Knoblich, J.A., Chan, Y.M., Jiang, M.M., Jan, L.Y., Jan, Y.N. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. The staufen/pumilio pathway is involved in Drosophila long-term memory. Dubnau, J., Chiang, A.S., Grady, L., Barditch, J., Gossweiler, S., McNeil, J., Smith, P., Buldoc, F., Scott, R., Certa, U., Broger, C., Tully, T. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Expression of the zebrafish Staufen gene in the embryo and adult. Bateman, M.J., Cornell, R., d'Alencon, C., Sandra, A. Gene Expr. Patterns (2004) [Pubmed]
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