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Gene Review

src-b  -  SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine...

Xenopus laevis

Synonyms: c-src, csrc, pp60c-src, pp60v-src, src, ...
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Disease relevance of src


High impact information on src

  • Expression of deregulated Xenopus fyn, a src-family member, resulted in a phenotype similar to that seen with deregulated src [2].
  • However, in the fyn-injected oocytes, many more proteins were phosphorylated on tyrosine than in the src-injected oocytes [2].
  • The Xenopus annexin II heavy chain lacks the highly conserved tyrosine at position 23 which is the site of src oncogene tyrosine kinase phosphorylation in the murine protein [3].
  • The haploid genome of Xenopus laevis contains two src genes, and transcripts from both genes are found in the maternal RNA pool of the oocyte (Steele, R. E. (1985) Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 1747-1761) [4].
  • Hybridization with probes specific for each of the two src RNAs indicates that the two genes are co-expressed in embryos and in at least some adult tissues as well as during oogenesis [4].

Biological context of src

  • Using a reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction assay, we demonstrate that expression of src+ mRNA is dependent on neural induction [5].
  • Alternative splicing is used by the src protooncogene to derive two gene products, pp60c-src and pp60+. pp60+ is expressed exclusively in neurons, whereas pp60c-src is expressed in many tissues [5].
  • Genomic and cDNA clones of the X. laevis src gene have been isolated and characterized by hybridization and DNA sequence analyses [6].
  • The coding region of the gene is interrupted by 10 introns whose locations are identical to the introns in the coding regions of the src genes of human and chicken [7].
  • We constructed in-frame deletion/replacement mutations in the Xenopus mos proto-oncogene that lie within conserved Mos-specific codons, but outside of the regions that are conserved among the src kinase family of genes [8].

Anatomical context of src

  • The protein kinase C (PKC) activator 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induces src+ mRNA expression in cultured stage 10+ animal cap ectoderm [5].
  • The discovery that phosphotyrosines produced by receptor autophosphorylation or during substrate phosphorylation serve as an anchor for src homology 2 domains of several signaling proteins had a major impact on understanding how cytoplasmic enzymes are recruited at the level of the plasma membrane for subsequent activation [9].

Associations of src with chemical compounds

  • TPA-dependent induction of src+ mRNA in ectoderm tissue is not blocked by cycloheximide and therefore is not dependent on protein synthesis [5].

Other interactions of src

  • The catenin p120(ctn) (formerly p120cas) was first identified as a src- and receptor-protein tyrosine kinase substrate and later shown to interact directly with cadherins [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of src


  1. Biochemical and biological comparison of HIV-1 NEF and ras gene products. Nebreda, A.R., Bryan, T., Segade, F., Wingfield, P., Venkatesan, S., Santos, E. Virology (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Biochemical and cytological changes associated with expression of deregulated pp60src in Xenopus oocytes. Unger, T.F., Steele, R.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Xenopus annexin II (calpactin I) heavy chain has a distinct amino terminus. Izant, J.G., Bryson, L.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. The two Xenopus laevis SRC genes are co-expressed and each produces functional pp60src. Steele, R.E., Unger, T.F., Mardis, M.J., Fero, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Alternative splicing of a neural-specific Src mRNA (Src+) is a rapid and protein synthesis-independent response to neural induction in Xenopus laevis. Collett, J.W., Steele, R.E. Dev. Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Two divergent cellular src genes are expressed in Xenopus laevis. Steele, R.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Structural organization of a src gene from Xenopus laevis. Ghosn, C.R., Ral, B.B., Winokur, S.T., Unger, T.F., Steele, R.E. Oncogene (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Mutagenic analysis of functional domains of the mos proto-oncogene and identification of the sites important for MAPK activation and DNA binding. Fukasawa, K., Zhou, R., Matten, W.T., Armstrong, A.J., Daar, I., Oskarsson, M., Sathyanarayana, B.K., Maclvor, L., Wood, T.G., Vande Woude, G.F. Oncogene (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Insulin and IGF-1 signaling in oocyte maturation. Grigorescu, F., Baccara, M.T., Rouard, M., Renard, E. Horm. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Misexpression of the catenin p120(ctn)1A perturbs Xenopus gastrulation but does not elicit Wnt-directed axis specification. Paulson, A.F., Fang, X., Ji, H., Reynolds, A.B., McCrea, P.D. Dev. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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