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Gene Review

ENOPH1  -  enolase-phosphatase 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 2,3-diketo-5-methylthio-1-phosphopentane phosphatase, E1, Enolase-phosphatase E1, MASA, MASA homolog, ...
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Disease relevance of ENOPH1

  • A new method for detecting circulating tumor cells that is based on magnetic-activated cell separation (MACS) and nested mutant allele-specific amplification (nested MASA) was evaluated in patients with colorectal cancer using the p53 and K-ras genes as genetic markers [1].
  • From these data it appears that urinary MASA may be used to diagnose bacterial prostatitis in situations in which quantitative bacteriologic cultures cannot be performed [2].
  • The effect of nixtamalization, the process by which masa flour is produced by alkaline hydrolysis of corn, on the organ-specific toxicity of F. moniliforme culture material containing fumonisin B1 (FB1) was studied and the effectiveness of nixtamalization and water extraction for detoxifying culture material was compared [3].

High impact information on ENOPH1

  • The ubiquitination of p53 requires the E1 enzyme and a novel E2 in mammalian cells, while E3 activity is conferred by the E6-E6-AP complex [4].
  • We identify UBE1L as the E1 enzyme that catalyzes the first activation step in the conjugation of ISG15, and show that the NS1B protein inhibits this activation step in vitro [5].
  • Expression of HPV16 E7 in a cell line with a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 enzyme of the ubiquitin pathway demonstrated that degradation of Rb was ubiquitin dependent [6].
  • One such residue, Ala-72 (Arg in ubiquitin), is shown to perform a key role in selecting against reaction with the ubiquitin E1 enzyme, thereby acting to prevent the inappropriate diversion of NEDD8 into ubiquitin-specific pathways [7].
  • We also succeeded in isolating inhibitors against the proteasome and E1 enzyme from marine natural resources [8].

Biological context of ENOPH1

  • This rescue confirms that the phenotype observed in the ts20 cells is due to a defect in the E1 enzyme [9].
  • A temperature-sensitive growth mutant tsFS20 isolated from mouse FM3A cells was identified as a mutant with thermolabile ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 by transfection with a full-length cDNA encoding the human E1 enzyme and cell-cell hybridization with an authentic E1 mutant ts85 previously isolated from FM3A cells [10].

Associations of ENOPH1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ENOPH1

  • Crystal structure of human E1 enzyme and its complex with a substrate analog reveals the mechanism of its phosphatase/enolase activity [11].

Other interactions of ENOPH1

  • Although the E1 enzyme for ISG15 (Ube1L/E1(ISG15)) has been identified, the identities of the downstream components of the ISG15 conjugation cascade have remained elusive [13].
  • AIMS/METHODS: Using purified E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from bovine heart, we measured the levels of anti-E1 antibodies in PBC sera using ELISA and determined the degree of inhibition that these antibodies exerted on E1 enzyme activity [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENOPH1

  • A rapid and simple enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) was developed to measure urinary total immunoglobulins and antibodies to common gram negative organisms (mixed antigen-specific antibodies, MASA) [2].
  • During ubiquitin ligation, an E2 conjugating enzyme receives ubiquitin from an E1 enzyme and then interacts with an E3 ligase to modify substrates [15].


  1. Detection of tumor cells in blood using CD45 magnetic cell separation followed by nested mutant allele-specific amplification of p53 and K-ras genes in patients with colorectal cancer. Iinuma, H., Okinaga, K., Adachi, M., Suda, K., Sekine, T., Sakagawa, K., Baba, Y., Tamura, J., Kumagai, H., Ida, A. Int. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Measurement of urinary antibodies to crude bacterial antigen in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis. Shortliffe, L.M., Elliott, K., Sellers, R.G. J. Urol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Comparative subchronic toxicity studies of nixtamalized and water-extracted Fusarium moniliforme culture material. Voss, K.A., Bacon, C.W., Meredith, F.I., Norred, W.P. Food Chem. Toxicol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. The HPV-16 E6 and E6-AP complex functions as a ubiquitin-protein ligase in the ubiquitination of p53. Scheffner, M., Huibregtse, J.M., Vierstra, R.D., Howley, P.M. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Influenza B virus NS1 protein inhibits conjugation of the interferon (IFN)-induced ubiquitin-like ISG15 protein. Yuan, W., Krug, R.M. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. E7 protein of human papilloma virus-16 induces degradation of retinoblastoma protein through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Boyer, S.N., Wazer, D.E., Band, V. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  7. Crystal structure of the human ubiquitin-like protein NEDD8 and interactions with ubiquitin pathway enzymes. Whitby, F.G., Xia, G., Pickart, C.M., Hill, C.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Natural products inhibiting the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, a target for drug development. Tsukamoto, S., Yokosawa, H. Current medicinal chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Rescue of the complex temperature-sensitive phenotype of Chinese hamster ovary E36ts20 cells by expression of the human ubiquitin-activating enzyme cDNA. Handley-Gearhart, P.M., Trausch-Azar, J.S., Ciechanover, A., Schwartz, A.L. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Complementation by a cloned human ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1 of the S-phase-arrested mouse FM3A cell mutant with thermolabile E1. Ayusawa, D., Kaneda, S., Itoh, Y., Yasuda, H., Murakami, Y., Sugasawa, K., Hanaoka, F., Seno, T. Cell Struct. Funct. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Crystal structure of human E1 enzyme and its complex with a substrate analog reveals the mechanism of its phosphatase/enolase activity. Wang, H., Pang, H., Bartlam, M., Rao, Z. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Modification of aldehyde dehydrogenase with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: separation of dehydrogenase from esterase activity. Abriola, D.P., Pietruszko, R. J. Protein Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. The UbcH8 ubiquitin E2 enzyme is also the E2 enzyme for ISG15, an IFN-alpha/beta-induced ubiquitin-like protein. Zhao, C., Beaudenon, S.L., Kelley, M.L., Waddell, M.B., Yuan, W., Schulman, B.A., Huibregtse, J.M., Krug, R.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Antibodies to E1 and E2/Protein X components of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in sera of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Kuroda, M., Morito, T., Takagi, T., Ohira, H., Kokubun, M., Kojima, T., Ono, K., Kochi, H., Kasukawa, R. J. Hepatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. E2 conjugating enzymes must disengage from their E1 enzymes before E3-dependent ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like transfer. Eletr, Z.M., Huang, D.T., Duda, D.M., Schulman, B.A., Kuhlman, B. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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