The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

ENO1  -  enolase 1, (alpha)

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase, Alpha-enolase, C-myc promoter-binding protein, ENO1L1, Enolase 1, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of ENO1


Psychiatry related information on ENO1


High impact information on ENO1

  • In terms of sequence similarity, size, and other physical characteristics delta-crystallin is closely related to argininosuccinate lyase, tau-crystallin to enolase, and SIII-crystallin to glutathione S-transferase; moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that epsilon-crystallin is an active lactate dehydrogenase [10].
  • The activity of pp60c-src from six of nine carcinoma cell lines was higher (on average, fivefold as measured by enolase phosphorylation, or eightfold as measured by autophosphorylation) than that of pp60c-src from normal colonic mucosal cells, or human or rodent fibroblasts [11].
  • RESULTS: Activity of Yes in adenomas at greatest risk for cancer was significantly greater (12- or 14-fold as measured by enolase or autophosphorylation, respectively) than activity in adjacent normal mucosa [12].
  • Neuron-specific enolase (NSE) is a neuronal form of the glycolytic enzyme enolase, which was first found in extracts of brain tissue, and was later shown to be present in APUD (amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation) cells and neurons of the diffuse neuroendocrine system but not in other peripheral cells [13].
  • These procedures are illustrated by applications to proton abstractions catalyzed by enolase and methylamine dehydrogenase and hydride-transfer reactions by alcohol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of ENO1


Biological context of ENO1


Anatomical context of ENO1


Associations of ENO1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of ENO1


Enzymatic interactions of ENO1

  • Kinase experiments demonstrated that in the presence of AAP1, the ability of c-ABL to phosphorylate either glutathione S-transferase-CRK or enolase was inhibited [32].

Regulatory relationships of ENO1

  • In contrast, levels of NSE in cerebral cortical tissue from Huntington's disease patients remains unchanged in comparison with controls whereas NNE levels are significantly increased [6].
  • Together, our results suggested a novel role of MBP-1 for suppression of prostate cancer cell growth by regulating the MEK5-mediated signaling pathway [33].
  • Treatment of the responsive human prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 with TGF beta induces a rapid and specific decrease in cellular levels of pp60Src and pp53/56Lyn and a corresponding decrease in their protein kinase activity when the assays were performed in vitro using the exogenous substrate enolase [34].
  • Serum samples from 52 patients with RA and 40 healthy controls were tested for presence of antibodies against citrullinated and non-citrullinated alpha-enolase by immunoblotting of the purified antigens [35].

Other interactions of ENO1

  • Conserved canonical E boxes in ENO1, HK2, and LDHA occur in 31- to 111-bp islands with high interspecies sequence identity (>65%) [36].
  • A specific radioimmunoassay is described for NNE and NSE with the studies reported indicating that neuronal enzyme levels vary considerably when different brain areas are compared, suggesting a relationship between functional activity and levels of NSE [26].
  • Variable levels of secretion of enolase and GAPDH proteins as well as of the Plg activation cofactor function were detected in strains representing major taxonomic groups of the genus Lactobacillus [37].
  • Comparative gene mapping of man and Cebus capucinus for PGD, ENO1, PGM2, and SOD1 [38].
  • Chromosome 1: lods on linkage among eight loci: Do, ENO1 Fy, PGM1, Rh, UMPK, Sc, and PGD [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ENO1


  1. Hypoxia response elements in the aldolase A, enolase 1, and lactate dehydrogenase A gene promoters contain essential binding sites for hypoxia-inducible factor 1. Semenza, G.L., Jiang, B.H., Leung, S.W., Passantino, R., Concordet, J.P., Maire, P., Giallongo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene amplification at chromosome 1pter-p33 including the genes PAX7 and ENO1 in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Rácz, A., Brass, N., Höfer, M., Sybrecht, G.W., Remberger, K., Meese, E.U. Int. J. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Introduction of in vitro transcribed ENO1 mRNA into neuroblastoma cells induces cell death. Ejeskär, K., Krona, C., Carén, H., Zaibak, F., Li, L., Martinsson, T., Ioannou, P.A. BMC Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Enolase isoenzyme distribution in the human brain and its tumours. Royds, J.A., Parsons, M.A., Taylor, C.B., Timperley, W.R. J. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Neuron-specific enolase. Assessment by ELISA in patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung. Anastasiades, K.D., Mullins, R.E., Conn, R.B. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain levels of neuron-specific and nonneuronal enolase in Huntington's disease. Marangos, P.J., Paul, S.M. J. Neurochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Blood cell superoxide dismutase and enolase activities as markers of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver diseases. Ledig, M., Doffoel, M., Doffoel, S., Kopp, P., Bockel, R., Mandel, P. Alcohol (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Cerebrospinal fluid neuron-specific enolase is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Cutler, N.R., Kay, A.D., Marangos, P.J., Burg, C. Arch. Neurol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Delirium tremens: some clinico-chemical features. A study of alanine-aminotransferase, alcaline phosphatase, prothrombine and enolase. Hemmingsen, R., Kramp, P., Dissing, J. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Recruitment of enzymes as lens structural proteins. Wistow, G., Piatigorsky, J. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. pp60c-src activation in human colon carcinoma. Cartwright, C.A., Kamps, M.P., Meisler, A.I., Pipas, J.M., Eckhart, W. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Elevated c-yes tyrosine kinase activity in premalignant lesions of the colon. Peña, S.V., Melhem, M.F., Meisler, A.I., Cartwright, C.A. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Neuron-specific enolase is produced by neuroendocrine tumours. Tapia, F.J., Polak, J.M., Barbosa, A.J., Bloom, S.R., Marangos, P.J., Dermody, C., Pearse, A.G. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  14. The incorporation of quantum effects in enzyme kinetics modeling. Truhlar, D.G., Gao, J., Alhambra, C., Garcia-Viloca, M., Corchado, J., Sánchez, M.L., Villà, J. Acc. Chem. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Expression of gamma-subunit of enolase, neuron-specific enolase, in human non-neuroendocrine tumors and derived cell lines. Påhlman, S., Esscher, T., Nilsson, K. Lab. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase and enolase activity and isoenzymes in lung, colon and liver carcinomas. Durany, N., Joseph, J., Campo, E., Molina, R., Carreras, J. Br. J. Cancer (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Phosphoglycerate mutase, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase, creatine kinase and enolase activity and isoenzymes in breast carcinoma. Durany, N., Joseph, J., Jimenez, O.M., Climent, F., Fernández, P.L., Rivera, F., Carreras, J. Br. J. Cancer (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Glycolytic enzymes in breast cancer, benign breast disease and normal breast tissue. Hennipman, A., Smits, J., van Oirschot, B., van Houwelingen, J.C., Rijksen, G., Neyt, J.P., Van Unnik, J.A., Staal, G.E. Tumour Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Surface modification of extracorporeal circuits: is there really an impact on cerebral performance after cardiopulmonary bypass? Isgro, F., Kiessling, A.H., Mittelstaedt, H., Saggau, W. The Thoracic and cardiovascular surgeon. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. ENO1 gene product binds to the c-myc promoter and acts as a transcriptional repressor: relationship with Myc promoter-binding protein 1 (MBP-1). Feo, S., Arcuri, D., Piddini, E., Passantino, R., Giallongo, A. FEBS Lett. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of five novel genes in chromosome 1p36. Onyango, P., Lubyova, B., Gardellin, P., Kurzbauer, R., Weith, A. Genomics (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Enolase: human tissue distribution and evidence for three different loci. Chen, S.H., Giblett, E.R. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. In situ distribution of enolase isozymes in chronic liver disease. Fukuda, Y., Miyazawa, Y., Imoto, M., Koyama, Y., Nakano, I., Nagura, H., Kato, K. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Human enolase isozymes: electrophoretic and biochemical evidence for three loci. Pearce, J.M., Edwards, Y.H., Harris, H. Ann. Hum. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Transcriptional regulation of two stage-specifically expressed genes in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Kibe, M.K., Coppin, A., Dendouga, N., Oria, G., Meurice, E., Mortuaire, M., Madec, E., Tomavo, S. Nucleic Acids Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. The existence and neurobiological significance of neuronal and glial forms of the glycolytic enzyme enolase. Marangos, P.J., Schmechel, D., Zis, A.P., Goodwin, F.K. Biol. Psychiatry (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Electron-immunocytochemical localization of neuron-specific enolase in cytoplasm and on membranes of primary and metastatic cerebral tumours and on glial filaments of glioma cells. Vinores, S.A., Herman, M.M., Rubinstein, L.J. Histopathology (1986) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular evolution of enolase. Piast, M., Kustrzeba-Wójcicka, I., Matusiewicz, M., Banaś, T. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of the human adenylate kinase isozymes, phosphopyruvate hydratase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and phosphoglucomutase-1 in man-rodent somatic cell hybrids. Bruns, G.A., Gerald, P.S. Biochem. Genet. (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of cell-surface lysines in plasminogen binding to cells: identification of alpha-enolase as a candidate plasminogen receptor. Miles, L.A., Dahlberg, C.M., Plescia, J., Felez, J., Kato, K., Plow, E.F. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Crystal structure of human E1 enzyme and its complex with a substrate analog reveals the mechanism of its phosphatase/enolase activity. Wang, H., Pang, H., Bartlam, M., Rao, Z. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. c-ABL tyrosine kinase activity is regulated by association with a novel SH3-domain-binding protein. Zhu, J., Shore, S.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. c-myc Promoter-binding protein 1 (MBP-1) regulates prostate cancer cell growth by inhibiting MAPK pathway. Ghosh, A.K., Steele, R., Ray, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. Transforming growth factor beta down-regulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. Atfi, A., Drobetsky, E., Boissonneault, M., Chapdelaine, A., Chevalier, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of citrullinated alpha-enolase as a candidate autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Kinloch, A., Tatzer, V., Wait, R., Peston, D., Lundberg, K., Donatien, P., Moyes, D., Taylor, P.C., Venables, P.J. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Evaluation of myc E-box phylogenetic footprints in glycolytic genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Kim, J.W., Zeller, K.I., Wang, Y., Jegga, A.G., Aronow, B.J., O'Donnell, K.A., Dang, C.V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Extracellular proteins of Lactobacillus crispatus enhance activation of human plasminogen. Hurmalainen, V., Edelman, S., Antikainen, J., Baumann, M., Lähteenmäki, K., Korhonen, T.K. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Comparative gene mapping of man and Cebus capucinus for PGD, ENO1, PGM2, and SOD1. Creau-Goldberg, N., Cochet, C., Turleau, C., Finaz, C., de Grouchy, J. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. Chromosome 1: lods on linkage among eight loci: Do, ENO1 Fy, PGM1, Rh, UMPK, Sc, and PGD. Lewis, M., Kaita, H., Côté, G.B., Chown, B., Giblett, E.R., Anderson, J.A. Birth Defects Orig. Artic. Ser. (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. Plasminogen-mediated group A streptococcal adherence to and pericellular invasion of human pharyngeal cells. Pancholi, V., Fontan, P., Jin, H. Microb. Pathog. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Enolase isoenzymes in human cerebral metastasis. van den Doel, E.M., Roholl, P.J., Rijksen, G., van Veelen, C.W., Staal, G.E. Tumour Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  42. Enolase isozymes as markers for differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and Wilms' tumor. Ishiguro, Y., Kato, K., Ito, T., Horisawa, M., Nagaya, M. Gann = Gan. (1984) [Pubmed]
  43. Pituitary autoantibodies in lymphocytic hypophysitis target both gamma- and alpha-Enolase - a link with pregnancy? O'Dwyer, D.T., Clifton, V., Hall, A., Smith, R., Robinson, P.J., Crock, P.A. Arch. Physiol. Biochem. (2002) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities