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Gene Review

CYTB  -  cytochrome b

Gallus gallus

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Disease relevance of CYTB

  • Quinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex of Rhodobacter sphaeroides occurs from an enzyme-substrate complex formed between quinol bound at the Q(o) site and the iron-sulfur protein (ISP) docked at an interface on cytochrome b [1].

High impact information on CYTB

  • From the structure of the stigmatellin-containing mitochondrial complex, we suggest that hydrogen bonds to the two quinol hydroxyl groups, from Glu-272 of cytochrome b and His-161 of the ISP, help to stabilize the enzyme-substrate complex and aid proton release [1].
  • First, it exhibits a novel gene order, the contiguous tRNA(Glu) and ND6 genes are located immediately adjacent to the displacement loop region of the molecule, just ahead of the contiguous tRNA(Pro), tRNA(Thr) and cytochrome b genes, which border the displacement loop region in other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes [2].
  • Crystallographic structures of the mitochondrial ubiquinol/cytochrome c oxidoreductase (cytochrome bc(1) complex) suggest that the mechanism of quinol oxidation by the bc(1) complex involves a substantial movement of the soluble head of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) between reaction domains in cytochrome b and cytochrome c(1) subunits [3].
  • The entire mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1,143 bp) was amplified via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced for nine galliforms and a representative anseriform to provide DNA sequence data for a phylogenetic reconstruction [4].
  • A high genetic difference (five haplotypes) was observed at the cytochrome b region in the Chunky broiler in contrast to the high homologies observed among the other chicken breeds (egg-purpose) [5].


  1. Pathways for proton release during ubihydroquinone oxidation by the bc(1) complex. Crofts, A.R., Hong, S., Ugulava, N., Barquera, B., Gennis, R., Guergova-Kuras, M., Berry, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Sequence and gene organization of the chicken mitochondrial genome. A novel gene order in higher vertebrates. Desjardins, P., Morais, R. J. Mol. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Steered molecular dynamics simulation of the Rieske subunit motion in the cytochrome bc(1) complex. Izrailev, S., Crofts, A.R., Berry, E.A., Schulten, K. Biophys. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Pathways of lysozyme evolution inferred from the sequences of cytochrome b in birds. Kornegay, J.R., Kocher, T.D., Williams, L.A., Wilson, A.C. J. Mol. Evol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Phylogenetic analysis in chicken breeds inferred from complete cytochrome b gene information. Shen, X.J., Ito, S., Mizutani, M., Yamamoto, Y. Biochem. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
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