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Gene Review

mt-Cytb  -  cytochrome b, mitochondrial

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: CYTB, Cob, Complex III subunit 3, Complex III subunit III, Cytb, ...
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Disease relevance of mt-Cytb


High impact information on mt-Cytb


Biological context of mt-Cytb


Anatomical context of mt-Cytb


Associations of mt-Cytb with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of mt-Cytb

  • We propose that the antiapoptotic properties of Bcl-2 are related to the reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity and lowered mitochondrial cytochrome b and c levels [22].

Other interactions of mt-Cytb

  • Immunoadsorption studies using antibody-coated polyacrylamide beads showed that significant OM cytochrome b-mediated activity is present in the microsomal membrane, and that cytochrome b5-mediated activity also exists in the mitochondrial outer membrane [23].
  • Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase differs from succinate dehydrogenase both in its utilization of ubiquinone and in the mechanism of cytochrome b reduction [19].
  • The lower islet mtDNA contents were paralleled by a decreased content of islet mtRNA (12S ribosomal RNA and cytochrome b messenger RNA) [24].
  • Genes encoding the apical iron transport-related proteins [divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and duodenal cytochrome b] were strongly induced at all ages studied, whereas increases in mRNA encoding the basolateral proteins iron-regulated gene 1 and hephaestin were observed only by real-time PCR [25].
  • Using functional and spectrophotometric measurements in an inducible PC12-Tet-on-bcl-2 cell line we demonstrate that induction of Bcl-2 overexpression rapidly reduced cytochrome b and c levels as well as complex I activity [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of mt-Cytb

  • Cellular mRNA levels for the mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome b and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined by Northern-blot analysis [21].
  • Male rat liver mitochondria were isolated by centrifugation; oxygen uptake, reduced forms of cytochrome b, c + c1, a + a3, and flavoprotein, intramitochondrial concentrations of acetyl coA, acid-soluble coA, acid-insoluble coA, and ATP content were measured after incubation with and without MO [26].
  • The rat carotid body is able to generate H2O2 in type-I cells with the aid of an electron-transferring chain with cytochrome b as the major component as it can be detected by spectrophotometry as well as confocal laser-microscopy [2].
  • To relate metabolic effects of MPP+ with tissue electrophysiology, extracellular potassium ion activity [K+]o was measured by microelectrodes simultaneous to optical monitoring of reduction/oxidation (redox) activity of cytochrome b during superfusion of MPP+ onto rat striatal and hippocampal slices [27].
  • Contents of NRF-1 mRNA and MRP-RNase RNA increased to maximum or sub-maximum level 1 h after hepatectomy. mtDNA and cytochrome b mRNA increased to maximum level 3 h after [28].


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  2. The meaning of H2O2 generation in carotid body cells for PO2 chemoreception. Acker, H., Bölling, B., Delpiano, M.A., Dufau, E., Görlach, A., Holtermann, G. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  4. Relationship between intestinal iron-transporter expression, hepatic hepcidin levels and the control of iron absorption. Anderson, G.J., Frazer, D.M., Wilkins, S.J., Becker, E.M., Millard, K.N., Murphy, T.L., McKie, A.T., Vulpe, C.D. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Alterations in mitochondrial RNA expression after renal ischemia. Van Itallie, C.M., Van Why, S., Thulin, G., Kashgarian, M., Siegel, N.J. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Vercesi, A.E., Rodrigues, C.O., Uyemura, S.A., Zhong, L., Moreno, S.N. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Selective suppression of Reiske iron-sulfur protein, ADP/ATP translocase, and phosphofructokinase genes is associated with ATP depletion in rat cardiomyocytes. Jeyaseelan, R., Poizat, C., Wu, H.Y., Kedes, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Hepatic cobalamin deficiency induced by hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam] treatment in rats is associated with decreased mitochondrial mRNA contents and accumulation of polycistronic mitochondrial RNAs. Leeds, F.S., Brass, E.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. The specific subcellular localization of two isoforms of cytochrome b5 suggests novel targeting pathways. D'Arrigo, A., Manera, E., Longhi, R., Borgese, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Nucleotide sequence and evolution of the rat mitochondrial cytochrome b gene containing the ochre termination codon. Koike, K., Kobayashi, M., Yaginuma, K., Taira, M., Yoshida, E., Imai, M. Gene (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Functional respiratory chain analyses in murid xenomitochondrial cybrids expose coevolutionary constraints of cytochrome b and nuclear subunits of complex III. McKenzie, M., Chiotis, M., Pinkert, C.A., Trounce, I.A. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA(Thr) gene associated with a mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. Nishino, I., Seki, A., Maegaki, Y., Takeshita, K., Horai, S., Nonaka, I., Goto, Y. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Evolution of South American spiny rats (Rodentia, Echimyidae): the star-phylogeny hypothesis revisited. Leite, Y.L., Patton, J.L. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular phylogeny of European muroid rodents based on complete cytochrome b sequences. Martin, Y., Gerlach, G., Schlötterer, C., Meyer, A. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Decreased activities of ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase (complex III) and ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase (complex IV) in liver mitochondria from rats with hydroxycobalamin[c-lactam]-induced methylmalonic aciduria. Krahenbuhl, S., Chang, M., Brass, E.P., Hoppel, C.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Aspects of energy-linked calcium accumulation by rat heart mitochondria. Jacobus, W.E., Tiozzo, R., Lugli, G., Lehninger, A.L., Carafoli, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. The inhibition by diphenyleneiodonium and its analogues of superoxide generation by macrophages. Hancock, J.T., Jones, O.T. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Selective and nonselective effects of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium on oxygen consumption in rat striatal and hippocampal slices. Martin, F.R., Sanchez-Ramos, J., Rosenthal, M. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Superoxide production and electron transport in mitochondrial oxidation of dihydroorotic acid. Forman, J.H., Kennedy, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. NADH-linked substrate dependence of peroxide-induced respiratory inhibition and calcium efflux in isolated renal mitochondria. Vlessis, A.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Exhibition of specific alterations in activities and mRNA levels of rat islet glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes in three different in vitro model systems for attenuated insulin release. Svensson, C., Welsh, N., Krawetz, S.A., Welsh, M. Diabetes (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Overexpression of bcl-2 results in reduction of cytochrome c content and inhibition of complex I activity. Schwarz, C.S., Evert, B.O., Seyfried, J., Schaupp, M., Kunz, W.S., Vielhaber, S., Klockgether, T., Wüllner, U. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Cytochrome b5-like hemoprotein of outer mitochondrial membrane: OM cytochrome b. II. Contribution of OM cytochrome b to rotenone-insensitive NADH-cytochrome c reductase activity. Ito, A. J. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  24. Mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content is specifically decreased in adult, but not fetal, pancreatic islets of the Goto-Kakizaki rat, a genetic model of noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Serradas, P., Giroix, M.H., Saulnier, C., Gangnerau, M.N., Borg, L.A., Welsh, M., Portha, B., Welsh, N. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of differentially expressed genes in response to dietary iron deprivation in rat duodenum. Collins, J.F., Franck, C.A., Kowdley, K.V., Ghishan, F.K. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Inhibition of mitochondrial functions by margosa oil: possible implications in the pathogenesis of Reye's syndrome. Koga, Y., Yoshida, I., Kimura, A., Yoshino, M., Yamashita, F., Sinniah, D. Pediatr. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. MPP+-induced increases in extracellular potassium ion activity in rat striatal slices suggest that consequences of MPP+ neurotoxicity are spread beyond dopaminergic terminals. Hollinden, G.E., Sanchez-Ramos, J.R., Sick, T.J., Rosenthal, M. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Increases in the mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription in the remnant liver of rats. Koyama, H., Kurokawa, T., Nonami, T., Nakao, A., Sugiyama, S., Murakami, T., Shimomura, Y., Takagi, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1998) [Pubmed]
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