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Chemical Compound Review

AC1NRD6D     8-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-3- methyl-2-[(3R,4R...

Synonyms: SMP2_000075, SIG
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Disease relevance of stigmatellin


High impact information on stigmatellin

  • Effects of mutation at this residue suggest that this group is involved in ligation of stigmatellin and quinol, but not quinone, and that the carboxylate function is essential for rapid turnover [3].
  • The site of mitochondrial ROS production was determined to be mitochondrial respiratory complex III (cytochrome bc1), because 1). stigmatellin, a Qo site inhibitor, blocked ROS production and prevented the MPT and cell death and 2). cytochrome bc1 activity was abolished in cells protected from the redox-dependent MPT by stigmatellin [4].
  • Deductions from the molecular analysis of the 65,000-bp stigmatellin biosynthetic gene cluster are reported [5].
  • The biosynthesis of the aromatic myxobacterial electron transport inhibitor stigmatellin is directed by a novel type of modular polyketide synthase [5].
  • In addition, inactivation of a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-encoding gene involved in post-PKS hydroxylation of the aromatic ring leads to the formation of two novel stigmatellin derivatives [5].

Biological context of stigmatellin


Anatomical context of stigmatellin


Associations of stigmatellin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of stigmatellin

  • Perhaps the common action of MPP(+) and stigmatellin on the functional coupling of the PSST and ND1 subunits is initiated by binding at a semiquinone binding site in complex I [20].
  • Rates of cytochrome f photooxidation in all strains were similar (t1/2 approximately = 300 microsec), whereas the rate of re-reduction sensitive to stigmatellin (at Eh = 0 mV, (where Eh is the ambient redox potential) for wild-type, Y1W, Y1F, Y1S, P2V, and V3P had a tl/2 of 3, 4, 5, 9, 40, and 2 ms, respectively [21].
  • The orientation of the g-tensors of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein subunit was determined in a single crystal of the bovine mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex with stigmatellin in the Qo quinol binding site [22].
  • Interaction of stigmatellin and DNP-INT with the Rieske iron-sulfur center of the chloroplast cytochrome b6-f complex [23].
  • This stigmatellin mutant also shows an altered circular-dichroic spectrum of the low-potential haem of cytochrome b [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of stigmatellin


  1. Roles in inhibitor recognition and quinol oxidation of the amino acid side chains at positions of cyt b providing resistance to Qo-inhibitors of the bc1 complex from Rhodobacter capsulatus. Tokito, M.K., Daldal, F. Mol. Microbiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Diastereo- and enantioselective total synthesis of stigmatellin A. Enders, D., Geibel, G., Osborne, S. Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Pathways for proton release during ubihydroquinone oxidation by the bc(1) complex. Crofts, A.R., Hong, S., Ugulava, N., Barquera, B., Gennis, R., Guergova-Kuras, M., Berry, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. The Coenzyme Q10 analog decylubiquinone inhibits the redox-activated mitochondrial permeability transition: role of mitcohondrial [correction mitochondrial] complex III. Armstrong, J.S., Whiteman, M., Rose, P., Jones, D.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. The biosynthesis of the aromatic myxobacterial electron transport inhibitor stigmatellin is directed by a novel type of modular polyketide synthase. Gaitatzis, N., Silakowski, B., Kunze, B., Nordsiek, G., Blöcker, H., Höfle, G., Müller, R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Significance of the "Rieske" iron-sulfur protein for formation and function of the ubiquinol-oxidation pocket of mitochondrial cytochrome c reductase (bc1 complex). Brandt, U., Haase, U., Schägger, H., von Jagow, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of site-directed mutations on heme reduction in Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A by menaquinol: a stopped-flow study. Zhao, Z., Rothery, R.A., Weiner, J.H. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Identification of StiR, the first regulator of secondary metabolite formation in the myxobacterium Cystobacter fuscus Cb f17.1. Rachid, S., Sasse, F., Beyer, S., Müller, R. J. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Oxidative phosphorylation supported by an alternative respiratory pathway in mitochondria from Euglena. Moreno-Sánchez, R., Covián, R., Jasso-Chávez, R., Rodríguez-Enríquez, S., Pacheco-Moisés, F., Torres-Márquez, M.E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Cytochrome b of protozoan mitochondria: relationships between function and structure. Ghelli, A., Crimi, M., Orsini, S., Gradoni, L., Zannotti, M., Lenaz, G., Degli Esposti, M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., B (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. The Rieske FeS center from the gram-positive bacterium PS3 and its interaction with the menaquinone pool studied by EPR. Liebl, U., Pezennec, S., Riedel, A., Kellner, E., Nitschke, W. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Inhibitor binding within the NarI subunit (cytochrome bnr) of Escherichia coli nitrate reductase A. Magalon, A., Rothery, R.A., Lemesle-Meunier, D., Frixon, C., Weiner, J.H., Blasco, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Studies on the effect of stigmatellin derivatives on cytochrome b and the Rieske iron-sulfur cluster of cytochrome c reductase from bovine heart mitochondria. Ohnishi, T., Brandt, U., von Jagow, G. Eur. J. Biochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Electron donation from membrane-bound cytochrome c to the photosynthetic reaction center in whole cells and isolated membranes of Heliobacterium gestii. Oh-Oka, H., Iwaki, M., Itoh, S. Photosyn. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. External alternative NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential source of superoxide. Fang, J., Beattie, D.S. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Superoxides from mitochondrial complex III: the role of manganese superoxide dismutase. Raha, S., McEachern, G.E., Myint, A.T., Robinson, B.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The amino-terminal portion of the Rieske iron-sulfur protein contributes to the ubihydroquinone oxidation site catalysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus bc1 complex. Brasseur, G., Sled, V., Liebl, U., Ohnishi, T., Daldal, F. Biochemistry (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct evidence for the interaction of stigmatellin with a protonated acidic group in the bc(1) complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae as monitored by FTIR difference spectroscopy and 13C specific labeling. Ritter, M., Palsdottir, H., Abe, M., Mäntele, W., Hunte, C., Miyoshi, H., Hellwig, P. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Hydroubiquinone-cytochrome c2 oxidoreductase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: definition of a minimal, functional isolated preparation. Robertson, D.E., Ding, H., Chelminski, P.R., Slaughter, C., Hsu, J., Moomaw, C., Tokito, M., Daldal, F., Dutton, P.L. Biochemistry (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Functional coupling of PSST and ND1 subunits in NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase established by photoaffinity labeling. Schuler, F., Casida, J.E. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. N-terminal mutants of chloroplast cytochrome f. Effect on redox reactions and growth in Chlamydomonas reinhardtII. Zhou, J., Fernández-Velasco, J.G., Malkin, R. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Orientation of the g-tensor axes of the Rieske subunit in the cytochrome bc1 complex. Bowman, M.K., Berry, E.A., Roberts, A.G., Kramer, D.M. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Interaction of stigmatellin and DNP-INT with the Rieske iron-sulfur center of the chloroplast cytochrome b6-f complex. Malkin, R. FEBS Lett. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. Structure/function relationships in mitochondrial cytochrome b revealed by the kinetic and circular dichroic properties of two yeast inhibitor-resistant mutants. Tron, T., Crimi, M., Colson, A.M., Degli Esposti, M. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Conformational changes in the cytochrome b6f complex induced by inhibitor binding. Breyton, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Structural basis of functions of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. Yu, C.A., Xia, D., Kim, H., Deisenhofer, J., Zhang, L., Kachurin, A.M., Yu, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
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