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Gene Review

AGL20  -  MADS-box protein SOC1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AGAMOUS-like 20, ATSOC1, F17K2.19, MADS-BOX PROTEIN AGL20, SOC1, ...
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Disease relevance of AGL20


High impact information on AGL20


Biological context of AGL20

  • The up-regulated genes included AGL20 and AGL9, which most likely cause the early flowering phenotype of 35S::SHL plants [6].
  • Late-flowering SHL-antisense lines showed reduced AGL20 mRNA levels, suggesting that AGL20 gene expression depends on the SHL protein [6].
  • We show that in transgenic plants overexpressing CO and FLC, these proteins regulate flowering time antagonistically and FLC blocks transcriptional activation of SOC1 by CO [5].
  • The fourth suppressor mutation is an allele of fwa, and fwa soc1 35S::CO plants flowered at approximately the same time as co mutants, suggesting that a combination of fwa and soc1 abolishes the promotion of flowering by CO [7].
  • These genes function in 'cascades' within four promotive pathways, the 'photoperiodic', 'autonomous', 'vernalization', and 'gibberellin' pathways, which all converge on the 'integrator' genes SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) [8].

Associations of AGL20 with chemical compounds

  • Rather, expression of FT and SOC1/AGL20 was repressed by 1% (w/v) Suc in wild-type background [9].
  • Two of these genes, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), are required for CO to promote flowering; the others are involved in proline or ethylene biosynthesis [2].
  • In order to determine if its role is conserved in other plants, we isolated AGL20 orthologs from Brassica campestris, Cardamine flexuosa and Draba nemorosa [1].

Other interactions of AGL20

  • Taken together, these data suggest that CO activates SOC1 through FT to promote flowering in Arabidopsis [10].
  • However, this genetic analysis was inconsistent with the sequential induction pattern of FT and SOC1 found in inducible CO overexpressor plants [10].
  • FT and SOC1 share the common upstream regulators CO, a key component in the long day pathway, and FLC, a flowering repressor integrating autonomous and vernalization pathways [11].
  • Further genetic analyses of epistasis indicate that AGL24 may act downstream of SOC1 and upstream of LFY [12].
  • In Arabidopsis, several genetic pathways controlling the floral transition (flowering) are integrated at the transcriptional regulation of FT, LFY and SOC1 [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AGL20

  • Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we have shown that FLC binds to a region of the first intron of FT that contains a putative CArG box, and have confirmed that FLC binds to a CArG box in the promoter of the SOC1 gene [14].


  1. The function of the flowering time gene AGL20 is conserved in Crucifers. Kim, K.W., Shin, J.H., Moon, J., Kim, M., Lee, J., Park, M.C., Lee, I. Mol. Cells (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis. Samach, A., Onouchi, H., Gold, S.E., Ditta, G.S., Schwarz-Sommer, Z., Yanofsky, M.F., Coupland, G. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The transcription factor FLC confers a flowering response to vernalization by repressing meristem competence and systemic signaling in Arabidopsis. Searle, I., He, Y., Turck, F., Vincent, C., Fornara, F., Kröber, S., Amasino, R.A., Coupland, G. Genes Dev. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. Lee, H., Suh, S.S., Park, E., Cho, E., Ahn, J.H., Kim, S.G., Lee, J.S., Kwon, Y.M., Lee, I. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs. Hepworth, S.R., Valverde, F., Ravenscroft, D., Mouradov, A., Coupland, G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Changes in gene expression in response to altered SHL transcript levels. Müssig, C., Altmann, T. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes. Onouchi, H., Igeño, M.I., Périlleux, C., Graves, K., Coupland, G. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The quest for florigen: a review of recent progress. Corbesier, L., Coupland, G. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of sugar on vegetative development and floral transition in Arabidopsis. Ohto, M., Onai, K., Furukawa, Y., Aoki, E., Araki, T., Nakamura, K. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. CONSTANS activates SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 through FLOWERING LOCUS T to promote flowering in Arabidopsis. Yoo, S.K., Chung, K.S., Kim, J., Lee, J.H., Hong, S.M., Yoo, S.J., Yoo, S.Y., Lee, J.S., Ahn, J.H. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Analysis of flowering pathway integrators in Arabidopsis. Moon, J., Lee, H., Kim, M., Lee, I. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. AGAMOUS-LIKE 24, a dosage-dependent mediator of the flowering signals. Yu, H., Xu, Y., Tan, E.L., Kumar, P.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) acts as a floral pathway integrator redundantly with FT. Yamaguchi, A., Kobayashi, Y., Goto, K., Abe, M., Araki, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The Arabidopsis FLC protein interacts directly in vivo with SOC1 and FT chromatin and is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex. Helliwell, C.A., Wood, C.C., Robertson, M., James Peacock, W., Dennis, E.S. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
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