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Gene Review

CO  -  zinc finger protein CONSTANS

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: B-box domain protein 1, BBX1, CONSTANS, F14F8.220, F14F8_220, ...
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High impact information on CO

  • The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors [1].
  • Mutations in elf4 result in early flowering in non-inductive photoperiods, which is probably caused by elevated amounts of CONSTANS (CO), a gene that promotes floral induction [2].
  • Like LFY, FT acts partially downstream of CONSTANS (CO), which promotes flowering in response to long days [3].
  • A photoperiod-dependent pathway relays signals from photoreceptors to a transcription factor gene, CONSTANS (CO), which activates downstream meristem identity genes such as LEAFY (LFY) [4].
  • SOC1 is directly activated by CONSTANS (CO) in long photoperiods and is repressed by FLC, a component of the vernalization (low-temperature) pathway [5].

Biological context of CO


Regulatory relationships of CO


Other interactions of CO

  • FKF1 F-box protein mediates cyclic degradation of a repressor of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis [12].
  • Finally, we found that the GI-dependent promotion of CONSTANS expression and flowering is intact in a gi mutant with altered circadian regulation [13].
  • TOC1 shares similarity to the receiver domain of the well-known two-component phosphorelay signalling systems, combined with a strong similarity to a region of the CONSTANS transcription factor, which is involved in controlling flowering time [14].
  • The Arabidopsis CONSTANS (CO) gene is a key regulator of the long day (LD)-dependent flowering pathway and two CO homologous genes COL1 and COL2 are involved in the regulation of the circadian rhythm [15].
  • Unlike constans, the col3 mutant flowers early and shows a reduced number of lateral branches in short days [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CO


  1. The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors. Putterill, J., Robson, F., Lee, K., Simon, R., Coupland, G. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. The ELF4 gene controls circadian rhythms and flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Doyle, M.R., Davis, S.J., Bastow, R.M., McWatters, H.G., Kozma-Bognár, L., Nagy, F., Millar, A.J., Amasino, R.M. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT. Kardailsky, I., Shukla, V.K., Ahn, J.H., Dagenais, N., Christensen, S.K., Nguyen, J.T., Chory, J., Harrison, M.J., Weigel, D. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals. Kobayashi, Y., Kaya, H., Goto, K., Iwabuchi, M., Araki, T. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs. Hepworth, S.R., Valverde, F., Ravenscroft, D., Mouradov, A., Coupland, G. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. CONSTANS and the CCAAT Box Binding Complex Share a Functionally Important Domain and Interact to Regulate Flowering of Arabidopsis. Wenkel, S., Turck, F., Singer, K., Gissot, L., Le Gourrierec, J., Samach, A., Coupland, G. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes. Onouchi, H., Igeño, M.I., Périlleux, C., Graves, K., Coupland, G. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Hd1, a major photoperiod sensitivity quantitative trait locus in rice, is closely related to the Arabidopsis flowering time gene CONSTANS. Yano, M., Katayose, Y., Ashikari, M., Yamanouchi, U., Monna, L., Fuse, T., Baba, T., Yamamoto, K., Umehara, Y., Nagamura, Y., Sasaki, T. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Independent ancient polyploidy events in the sister families brassicaceae and cleomaceae. Schranz, M.E., Mitchell-Olds, T. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Conserved structure and function of the Arabidopsis flowering time gene CONSTANS in Brassica napus. Robert, L.S., Robson, F., Sharpe, A., Lydiate, D., Coupland, G. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. CONSTANS activates SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 through FLOWERING LOCUS T to promote flowering in Arabidopsis. Yoo, S.K., Chung, K.S., Kim, J., Lee, J.H., Hong, S.M., Yoo, S.J., Yoo, S.Y., Lee, J.S., Ahn, J.H. Plant Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. FKF1 F-box protein mediates cyclic degradation of a repressor of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis. Imaizumi, T., Schultz, T.F., Harmon, F.G., Ho, L.A., Kay, S.A. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. GIGANTEA Acts in Blue Light Signaling and Has Biochemically Separable Roles in Circadian Clock and Flowering Time Regulation. Martin-Tryon, E.L., Kreps, J.A., Harmer, S.L. Plant Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Clock-associated genes in Arabidopsis: a family affair. Somers, D.E. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a CONSTANS homologue, PnCOL1, from Pharbitis nil. Kim, S.J., Moon, J., Lee, I., Maeng, J., Kim, S.R. J. Exp. Bot. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Arabidopsis CONSTANS-LIKE3 is a positive regulator of red light signaling and root growth. Datta, S., Hettiarachchi, G.H., Deng, X.W., Holm, M. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
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