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Gene Review

WRI1  -  ethylene-responsive transcription factor WRI1

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on WRI1

  • Despite major changes in metabolism between wri1 and wild-type seeds, <1% of genes differed by more than twofold, and most of these were involved in central lipid and carbohydrate metabolism [1].
  • We have used cDNA microarrays to examine changes in gene expression during Arabidopsis seed development and to compare wild-type and mutant wrinkled1 (wri1) seeds that have an 80% reduction in oil [1].
  • The WRI1 gene encodes an APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element-binding protein transcription factor involved in the control of metabolism, particularly glycolysis, in the developing seeds [2].
  • Double-mutant analysis between abi3-3 and wri1-1 suggested that WRI1 and ABI3, a transcription factor mediating ABA responses in seeds, act in parallel pathways [2].
  • Germination of the mutant was more sensitive to ABA, sugars, and osmolites, an effect that was alleviated by increased WRI1 expression in transgenic lines [2].

Biological context of WRI1

  • Because the activities of several glycolytic enzymes, in particular hexokinase and pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase, are reduced in developing homozygous wri1 seeds, it is suggested that WRI1 is involved in the developmental regulation of carbohydrate metabolism during seed filling [3].
  • A novel mutant locus, wrinkled1 (wri1), which maps to the bottom of chromosome 3 and causes an 80% reduction in seed oil content, was identified [3].

Associations of WRI1 with chemical compounds


  1. Contrapuntal networks of gene expression during Arabidopsis seed filling. Ruuska, S.A., Girke, T., Benning, C., Ohlrogge, J.B. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. WRI1 is required for seed germination and seedling establishment. Cernac, A., Andre, C., Hoffmann-Benning, S., Benning, C. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. wrinkled1: A novel, low-seed-oil mutant of Arabidopsis with a deficiency in the seed-specific regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Focks, N., Benning, C. Plant Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. ACTIVATOR of Spomin::LUC1/WRINKLED1 of Arabidopsis thaliana transactivates sugar-inducible promoters. Masaki, T., Mitsui, N., Tsukagoshi, H., Nishii, T., Morikami, A., Nakamura, K. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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