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Chemical Compound Review

pyruvate     2-oxopropanoate

Synonyms: pyruvat, AG-G-03376, CHEBI:15361, CTK1H3219, ZINC01532517, ...
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Disease relevance of pyruvic acid


Psychiatry related information on pyruvic acid


High impact information on pyruvic acid

  • Lactate and pyruvate cross cell membranes via a monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) with well-defined properties but undefined molecular structure [11].
  • Three classes of proteins were studied: first, wild-type and mutant forms of nucleolin, one of the first shuttling proteins identified; second, artificial nuclear reporter proteins derived from cytoplasmic pyruvate kinase; and third, wild-type and mutant lamins differing in their abilities to be incorporated into the lamina [12].
  • The 74-kd mitochondrial protein is the E2 component--dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase--of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, and the 52-kd protein is the equivalent E2 component--dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase--of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex [1].
  • The chicken pyruvate kinase gene is interrupted by at least ten introns, including nine introns within the coding region [13].
  • We have found some sequence homology between a segment of pyruvate kinase and the structurally homologous mononucleotide binding fold of alcohol dehydrogenase [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of pyruvic acid


Biological context of pyruvic acid


Anatomical context of pyruvic acid


Associations of pyruvic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pyruvic acid

  • Mixed peptide sequencing identified these proteins as hexokinase II (Hxk2p) and the E1alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase [31].
  • The intron sequences of the human L-type pyruvate kinase gene (PKLR) were determined by using primers selected from the known cDNA sequence [32].
  • Mutations in PDX1, the human lipoyl-containing component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex gene on chromosome 11p1, in congenital lactic acidosis [33].
  • The nifJ gene of Klebsiella pneumoniae encodes an oxidoreductase required for the transfer of electrons from pyruvate to flavodoxin, which reduces nitrogenase [34].
  • An insertion mutation in RAS2 (ras2::LEU2) does not affect growth on glucose based media but it does prevent growth on media with pyruvate or other noncarbohydrate carbon sources [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pyruvic acid


  1. Detection of autoantibodies to recombinant mitochondrial proteins in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Van de Water, J., Cooper, A., Surh, C.D., Coppel, R., Danner, D., Ansari, A., Dickson, R., Gershwin, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Low activities of the pyruvate and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes in five patients with Friedreich's ataxia. Blass, J.P., Kark, R.A., Menon, N.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Salicylate-induced injury of pyruvate-kinase-deficient erythrocytes. Glader, B.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Isochorismate synthase is required to synthesize salicylic acid for plant defence. Wildermuth, M.C., Dewdney, J., Wu, G., Ausubel, F.M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Absence of pyruvate decarboxylase activity in man: a cause of congenital lactic acidosis. Farrell, D.F., Clark, A.F., Scott, C.R., Wennberg, R.P. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. The SR protein SC35 is responsible for aberrant splicing of the E1alpha pyruvate dehydrogenase mRNA in a case of mental retardation with lactic acidosis. Gabut, M., Miné, M., Marsac, C., Brivet, M., Tazi, J., Soret, J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. An immunochemical study of the pyruvate dehydrogenase deficit in Alzheimer's disease brain. Sheu, K.F., Kim, Y.T., Blass, J.P., Weksler, M.E. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Cerebrospinal fluid pyruvate levels in Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Parnetti, L., Reboldi, G.P., Gallai, V. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Nitric oxide production in the basal forebrain is required for recovery sleep. Kalinchuk, A.V., Lu, Y., Stenberg, D., Rosenberg, P.A., Porkka-Heiskanen, T. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Net hepatic and splanchnic metabolism of lactate, pyruvate and propionate in dairy cows in vivo in relation to lactation and nutrient supply. Baird, G.D., Lomax, M.A., Symonds, H.W., Shaw, S.R. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  11. Molecular characterization of a membrane transporter for lactate, pyruvate, and other monocarboxylates: implications for the Cori cycle. Garcia, C.K., Goldstein, J.L., Pathak, R.K., Anderson, R.G., Brown, M.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Nuclear export of proteins: the role of nuclear retention. Schmidt-Zachmann, M.S., Dargemont, C., Kühn, L.C., Nigg, E.A. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Intron/exon structure of the chicken pyruvate kinase gene. Lonberg, N., Gilbert, W. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Myocardial protection after whole body heat stress in the rabbit is dependent on metabolic substrate and is related to the amount of the inducible 70-kD heat stress protein. Marber, M.S., Walker, J.M., Latchman, D.S., Yellon, D.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Deficiency of the iron-sulfur clusters of mitochondrial reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in an infant with congenital lactic acidosis. Moreadith, R.W., Batshaw, M.L., Ohnishi, T., Kerr, D., Knox, B., Jackson, D., Hruban, R., Olson, J., Reynafarje, B., Lehninger, A.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Alanine inhibition of pyruvate kinase in gliomas and meningiomas. A diagnostic tool in surgery for gliomas? van Veelen, C.W., Staal, G.E., Verbiest, H., Vlug, A.M. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Membrane dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) on human biliary epithelial cells in primary biliary cirrhosis. Joplin, R., Lindsay, J.G., Johnson, G.D., Strain, A., Neuberger, J. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Crystal structure of cystalysin from Treponema denticola: a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent protein acting as a haemolytic enzyme. Krupka, H.I., Huber, R., Holt, S.C., Clausen, T. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Norepinephrine and epinephrine release and adrenergic mediation of smoking-associated hemodynamic and metabolic events. Cryer, P.E., Haymond, M.W., Santiago, J.V., Shah, S.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Stimulation of phosphorylation and inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by physiological inhibitors of the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. Cooper, R.H., Randle, P.J., Denton, R.M. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Human testis-specific PGK gene lacks introns and possesses characteristics of a processed gene. McCarrey, J.R., Thomas, K. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. Crystal structure of the free radical intermediate of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. Chabrière, E., Vernède, X., Guigliarelli, B., Charon, M.H., Hatchikian, E.C., Fontecilla-Camps, J.C. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Decreased uptake and retention of rhodamine 123 by mitochondria in feline sarcoma virus-transformed mink cells. Johnson, L.V., Summerhayes, I.C., Chen, L.B. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Incorporation of 32Pi into pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate in mitochondria from control and insulin-treated adipose tissue. Hughes, W.A., Denton, R.M. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  25. Evidence for extramitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase involved in acetylcholine synthesis in nerve endings. Lefresne, P., Beaujouan, J.C., Glowinski, J. Nature (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. How thiamine diphosphate is activated in enzymes. Kern, D., Kern, G., Neef, H., Tittmann, K., Killenberg-Jabs, M., Wikner, C., Schneider, G., Hübner, G. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Abnormal glutamate metabolism in an adult-onset degenerative neurological disorder. Plaitakis, A., Berl, S., Yahr, M.D. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Binding specificity of serum amyloid P component for the pyruvate acetal of galactose. Hind, C.R., Collins, P.M., Renn, D., Cook, R.B., Caspi, D., Baltz, M.L., Pepys, M.B. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Contributions of gluconeogenesis to glucose production in the fasted state. Landau, B.R., Wahren, J., Chandramouli, V., Schumann, W.C., Ekberg, K., Kalhan, S.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Hydrogen peroxide-induced renal injury. A protective role for pyruvate in vitro and in vivo. Salahudeen, A.K., Clark, E.C., Nath, K.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  31. Reg1p targets protein phosphatase 1 to dephosphorylate hexokinase II in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterizing the effects of a phosphatase subunit on the yeast proteome. Alms, G.R., Sanz, P., Carlson, M., Haystead, T.A. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Analysis of pyruvate kinase-deficiency mutations that produce nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. Baronciani, L., Beutler, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  33. Mutations in PDX1, the human lipoyl-containing component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex gene on chromosome 11p1, in congenital lactic acidosis. Aral, B., Benelli, C., Ait-Ghezala, G., Amessou, M., Fouque, F., Maunoury, C., Créau, N., Kamoun, P., Marsac, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Growth of the cyanobacterium Anabaena on molecular nitrogen: NifJ is required when iron is limited. Bauer, C.C., Scappino, L., Haselkorn, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. On ras gene function in yeast. Fraenkel, D.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  36. Entorhinal cortex lesions induce a decreased calcium transport in hippocampal mitochondria. Baudry, M., Fuchs, J., Kessler, M., Arst, D., Lynch, G. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  37. Defects in the E2 lipoyl transacetylase and the X-lipoyl containing component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in patients with lactic acidemia. Robinson, B.H., MacKay, N., Petrova-Benedict, R., Ozalp, I., Coskun, T., Stacpoole, P.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Pyruvate kinase and the "high ATP syndrome". Staal, G.E., Jansen, G., Roos, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  39. Regulation of rat proximal intestinal glycolytic enzyme activity by ileal perfusion with glucose. Espinoza, J., Clark, S.B., Hritz, A., Rosensweig, N.S. Gastroenterology (1976) [Pubmed]
  40. Antibodies against mitochondrial dehydrogenase complexes in primary biliary cirrhosis. Yoshida, T., Bonkovsky, H., Ansari, A., Danner, D. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
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