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Gene Review

HXK1  -  hexokinase 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HEXOKINASE 1, ATHXK1, F19B15.160, F19B15_160, GIN2, ...
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High impact information on ATHXK1

  • The characterization of the gin5 mutant, on the other hand, reveals that glucose-specific accumulation of ABA is essential for hexokinase-mediated glucose responses [1].
  • VIGS of Hxk1 reduced the cellular glucose-phosphorylating activity to approximately 31% of control levels without changing the fructose-phosphorylating activity and did not alter hexose phosphate content severely [2].
  • Hxk1 was associated with the mitochondria, and this association required the N-terminal membrane anchor [2].
  • Recent findings suggest a pivotal role for mitochondria-associated hexokinase in the regulation of apoptosis in animal cells [2].
  • In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of a hexokinase-encoding Hxk1 caused necrotic lesions on leaves, abnormal leaf morphology, and retarded plant growth in Nicotiana benthamiana [2].

Biological context of ATHXK1


Anatomical context of ATHXK1

  • Finally, the addition of recombinant Hxk1 to mitochondria-enriched fractions prevented H(2)O(2)/clotrimazole-induced cytochrome c release and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential [2].
  • The in vitro activities of hexokinase, vacuolar acid invertase, and cell wall acid invertase do not change until the late stages of senescence, when they increase markedly [8].

Associations of ATHXK1 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of ATHXK1

  • By contrast, the stimulation of LKR/SDH protein expression by sugar starvation is regulated by the hexokinase-signaling cascade in a similar manner to the repression of many photosynthetic genes by sugars [12].

Other interactions of ATHXK1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ATHXK1


  1. Analysis of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive mutants, gin5 and gin6, reveals a central role of the plant hormone ABA in the regulation of plant vegetative development by sugar. Arenas-Huertero, F., Arroyo, A., Zhou, L., Sheen, J., León, P. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Mitochondria-Associated Hexokinases Play a Role in the Control of Programmed Cell Death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Kim, M., Lim, J.H., Ahn, C.S., Park, K., Kim, G.T., Kim, W.T., Pai, H.S. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence. Dai, N., Schaffer, A., Petreikov, M., Shahak, Y., Giller, Y., Ratner, K., Levine, A., Granot, D. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Regulation of root ion transporters by photosynthesis: functional importance and relation with hexokinase. Lejay, L., Gansel, X., Cerezo, M., Tillard, P., Müller, C., Krapp, A., von Wirén, N., Daniel-Vedele, F., Gojon, A. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Sugar induced cell death in yeast is dependent on the rate of sugar phosphorylation as determined by Arabidopsis thaliana hexokinase. Granot, D., Dai, N. Cell Death Differ. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Sugar regulation of gene expression in plants. Smeekens, S. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Multiple signaling pathways in gene expression during sugar starvation. Pharmacological analysis of din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis. Fujiki, Y., Ito, M., Nishida, I., Watanabe, A. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of photosynthesis during Arabidopsis leaf development in continuous light. Stessman, D., Miller, A., Spalding, M., Rodermel, S. Photosyn. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. In plants, 3-o-methylglucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase but not perceived as a sugar. Cortès, S., Gromova, M., Evrard, A., Roby, C., Heyraud, A., Rolin, D.B., Raymond, P., Brouquisse, R.M. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Mannose inhibits Arabidopsis germination via a hexokinase-mediated step. Pego, J.V., Weisbeek, P.J., Smeekens, S.C. Plant Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. The Arabidopsis SUCROSE UNCOUPLED-6 gene is identical to ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE-4: involvement of abscisic acid in sugar responses. Huijser, C., Kortstee, A., Pego, J., Weisbeek, P., Wisman, E., Smeekens, S. Plant J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Synthesis of the Arabidopsis bifunctional lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase enzyme of lysine catabolism is concertedly regulated by metabolic and stress-associated signals. Stepansky, A., Galili, G. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Differential regulation of EIN3 stability by glucose and ethylene signalling in plants. Yanagisawa, S., Yoo, S.D., Sheen, J. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. wrinkled1: A novel, low-seed-oil mutant of Arabidopsis with a deficiency in the seed-specific regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Focks, N., Benning, C. Plant Physiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. ABI4 mediates the effects of exogenous trehalose on Arabidopsis growth and starch breakdown. Ramon, M., Rolland, F., Thevelein, J.M., Van Dijck, P., Leyman, B. Plant Mol. Biol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1, which catalyses the first step in trehalose synthesis, is essential for Arabidopsis embryo maturation. Eastmond, P.J., van Dijken, A.J., Spielman, M., Kerr, A., Tissier, A.F., Dickinson, H.G., Jones, J.D., Smeekens, S.C., Graham, I.A. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Sucrose and light regulation of a cold-inducible UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene via a hexokinase-independent and abscisic acid-insensitive pathway in Arabidopsis. Ciereszko, I., Johansson, H., Kleczkowski, L.A. Biochem. J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. A novel type of chloroplast stromal hexokinase is the major glucose-phosphorylating enzyme in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Olsson, T., Thelander, M., Ronne, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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