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Gene Review

ABI3  -  B3 domain-containing transcription factor...

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of ABI3

  • Studies of genetic interactions demonstrate that ABA hypersensitivity conferred by the ABA-hypersensitive1 mutation or overexpression of ABI3 or ABI5 does not suppress the dwarfing and Glc dependence caused by abi8 but partially suppresses ABA-resistant germination [1].
  • A novel pathogen-induced gene encoding the RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factor, CARAV1, was isolated from pepper leaves infected with Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria [2].

High impact information on ABI3

  • By analyzing ABI3 and FUS3 expression in various single, double, and triple maturation mutants, we have identified multiple regulatory links among all four genes [3].
  • Finally, LEC1 also positively regulates ABI3 and FUS3 in the cotyledons [3].
  • We found that one of the major roles of LEC2 was to upregulate FUS3 and ABI3 [3].
  • Most of these genes bear the RY cis motif, which is a binding site of the transcription factor ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), and the phyB mutation also enhances ABI3 expression [4].
  • During seed maturation, ABI3 required DET1 to achieve its full expression [5].

Biological context of ABI3

  • Previous studies have shown that recessive mutations at the Arabidopsis ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) loci lead to various abnormalities during mid-embryogenesis and late embryogenesis [6].
  • Based on reporter gene constructs, the upstream regulation of ABI3 by ERA1 occurs at least partially at the level of transcription, suggesting that this lipid modification is required to attenuate ABI3 expression [7].
  • The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) gene is modulated by farnesylation and is involved in auxin signaling and lateral root development in Arabidopsis [7].
  • In addition to the known N-terminal-located activation domain, a second transcription activation domain was found in the B1 region of ABI3 [8].
  • Molecular and genetic analysis of this mutant shows that these phenotypes are caused by an internal deletion of approximately one third of the ABI3 gene [9].

Anatomical context of ABI3

  • These observations suggest that ABI3 plays a role in plastid differentiation pathways in vegetative tissues [5].

Associations of ABI3 with chemical compounds

  • These results suggest the possibility that genes identified through ABA responsive germination screens such as ERA1 and ABI3 have functions in auxin action in Arabidopsis [7].
  • Similar experiments also indicate that ABI3 is auxin inducible in lateral root primordia [7].
  • The expression of ABI3- and/or ABA-responsive genes and cis-elements in the promoters are discussed [10].
  • This study shows a common mechanism of ABI3 in regulating different seed-specific genes through combinatorial interactions with particular bZIP proteins and a conserved role of O2-like bZIPs in monocot and dicot species [11].
  • In plants ectopically expressing ABI3, AtPER1::GUS expression was found in true leaves, and AtPER1 could be induced by exogenous ABA and oxidative stress (H2O2 and hydroquinone) [12].

Regulatory relationships of ABI3

  • This ABA dependency of FUS3-induced CRC and At2S3 expression was similar to that observed for ABI3 [13].
  • Furthermore, ectopic expression of ABI3 also influenced ABI1-dependent responses that occur in wild-type vegetative tissues [14].
  • These data indicate that there is distinct developmental and stress regulation of HSP17.4, and imply that ABI3 activates HSP17.4 transcription during development [15].

Other interactions of ABI3

  • These results suggest that in contrast to previous models, the ABI3, FUS3, and LEC1 genes act synergistically to control multiple elementary processes during seed development [6].
  • Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis [10].
  • The ABI5 domains required for interaction with ABI3 include two conserved charged domains in the amino-terminal half of the protein [16].
  • Our results indicate some cross-regulation of expression among ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5 and suggest that they function in a combinatorial network, rather than a regulatory hierarchy, controlling seed development and ABA response [17].
  • Double-mutant analysis between abi3-3 and wri1-1 suggested that WRI1 and ABI3, a transcription factor mediating ABA responses in seeds, act in parallel pathways [18].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ABI3

  • These results suggest that sHSP expression in seeds is regulated by the ABI3 response pathway and wild-type levels of sHSPs are not sufficient for seed dormancy and not necessary for desiccation tolerance [19].


  1. The Arabidopsis thaliana ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE8 encodes a novel protein mediating abscisic acid and sugar responses essential for growth. Brocard-Gifford, I., Lynch, T.J., Garcia, M.E., Malhotra, B., Finkelstein, R.R. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression and functional roles of the pepper pathogen-induced transcription factor RAV1 in bacterial disease resistance, and drought and salt stress tolerance. Sohn, K.H., Lee, S.C., Jung, H.W., Hong, J.K., Hwang, B.K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. A network of local and redundant gene regulation governs Arabidopsis seed maturation. To, A., Valon, C., Savino, G., Guilleminot, J., Devic, M., Giraudat, J., Parcy, F. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Phytochrome control of the Arabidopsis transcriptome anticipates seedling exposure to light. Mazzella, M.A., Arana, M.V., Staneloni, R.J., Perelman, S., Rodriguez Batiller, M.J., Muschietti, J., Cerdán, P.D., Chen, K., Sánchez, R.A., Zhu, T., Chory, J., Casal, J.J. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. ABI3 affects plastid differentiation in dark-grown Arabidopsis seedlings. Rohde, A., De Rycke, R., Beeckman, T., Engler, G., Van Montagu, M., Boerjan, W. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The ABSCISIC ACID-INSENSITIVE3, FUSCA3, and LEAFY COTYLEDON1 loci act in concert to control multiple aspects of Arabidopsis seed development. Parcy, F., Valon, C., Kohara, A., Miséra, S., Giraudat, J. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. The ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) gene is modulated by farnesylation and is involved in auxin signaling and lateral root development in Arabidopsis. Brady, S.M., Sarkar, S.F., Bonetta, D., McCourt, P. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Seed-specific transcription factors ABI3 and FUS3: molecular interaction with DNA. Mönke, G., Altschmied, L., Tewes, A., Reidt, W., Mock, H.P., Bäumlein, H., Conrad, U. Planta (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Isolation of an internal deletion mutant of the Arabidopsis thaliana ABI3 gene. Nambara, E., Keith, K., McCourt, P., Naito, S. Plant Cell Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Transcriptional regulation of ABI3- and ABA-responsive genes including RD29B and RD29A in seeds, germinating embryos, and seedlings of Arabidopsis. Nakashima, K., Fujita, Y., Katsura, K., Maruyama, K., Narusaka, Y., Seki, M., Shinozaki, K., Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Plant Mol. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Synergistic activation of seed storage protein gene expression in Arabidopsis by ABI3 and two bZIPs related to OPAQUE2. Lara, P., Oñate-Sánchez, L., Abraham, Z., Ferrándiz, C., Díaz, I., Carbonero, P., Vicente-Carbajosa, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. ABI3 mediates expression of the peroxiredoxin antioxidant AtPER1 gene and induction by oxidative stress. Haslekås, C., Grini, P.E., Nordgard, S.H., Thorstensen, T., Viken, M.K., Nygaard, V., Aalen, R.B. Plant Mol. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Indirect ABA-dependent regulation of seed storage protein genes by FUSCA3 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. Kagaya, Y., Okuda, R., Ban, A., Toyoshima, R., Tsutsumida, K., Usui, H., Yamamoto, A., Hattori, T. Plant Cell Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Interactions between the ABI1 and the ectopically expressed ABI3 genes in controlling abscisic acid responses in Arabidopsis vegetative tissues. Parcy, F., Giraudat, J. Plant J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. The expression of small heat shock proteins in seeds responds to discrete developmental signals and suggests a general protective role in desiccation tolerance. Wehmeyer, N., Vierling, E. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Physical interactions between ABA response loci of Arabidopsis. Nakamura, S., Lynch, T.J., Finkelstein, R.R. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation and function of the Arabidopsis ABA-insensitive4 gene in seed and abscisic acid response signaling networks. Söderman, E.M., Brocard, I.M., Lynch, T.J., Finkelstein, R.R. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. WRI1 is required for seed germination and seedling establishment. Cernac, A., Andre, C., Hoffmann-Benning, S., Benning, C. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Synthesis of small heat-shock proteins is part of the developmental program of late seed maturation. Wehmeyer, N., Hernandez, L.D., Finkelstein, R.R., Vierling, E. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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