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Gene Review

CUL1  -  cullin 1

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATCUL1, AUXIN RESISTANT 6, AXR6, T10P11.26, T10P11_26
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High impact information on ATCUL1

  • We propose that RBX1 functions as an E3 for RUB modification of CUL1 [1].
  • In Arabidopsis, RUB modification of CUL1 is required for normal function of SCF(TIR1), an E3 required for response to the plant hormone auxin [1].
  • Arabidopsis AXR6 encodes CUL1 implicating SCF E3 ligases in auxin regulation of embryogenesis [2].
  • In addition, we show that CUL1 has a role in auxin response throughout the life cycle of the plant [2].
  • These results indicate that the embryonic axr6 phenotype is related to a defect in SCF function and accumulation of Aux/IAA proteins such as BDL/IAA12 [2].

Biological context of ATCUL1

  • The SCF core components Skp1, Cul1, and Rbx1 serve in multiple SCF complexes involving different substrate-specific F-box proteins that are involved in diverse processes including cell cycle and development [3].
  • Plants homozygous for a point mutation in the AtCUL1 gene showed reduced floral organ number and several defects in each of the four whorls [3].
  • SKP1/ASK1, cullin and proteasomal alpha-subunits show nuclear co-localization in differentiated Arabidopsis cells, and are observed in association with mitotic spindles and phragmoplasts during cell division [4].
  • The requirement of CUL1 for Arabidopsis embryogenesis suggests that Skp1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complexes play important roles during embryo development [5].
  • We describe two mutants of Arabidopsis that define a novel gene called AUXIN-RESISTANT6 (AXR6) which maps to chromosome 4 [6].

Associations of ATCUL1 with chemical compounds

  • The regulation of EIN3 stability by ethylene is accomplished by F-box-containing proteins that participate in the formation of a SKP1/cullin/F-box complex that targets proteins for degradation by the proteasome [7].

Physical interactions of ATCUL1

  • In the absence of ethylene, EIN3 and possibly other EIL proteins are targeted for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by Cullin 1-based E3 complexes containing EBF1 and 2 [8].

Other interactions of ATCUL1

  • Furthermore, the genetic interaction between UFO and AtCUL1 supports the idea that UFO regulates multiple aspects of flower development as a part of SCF complexes [3].
  • Furthermore, we demonstrate that CSN interacts with CUL3, in addition to CUL1 and CUL4, and that the lack of CSN activity differentially affects the stability of those three cullins [9].
  • In this work Arabidopsis cullin 4 is shown to assemble with DDB1, RBX1, DET1 and DDB2 in vitro and in planta [10].
  • The Arabidopsis cullin AtCUL1 is modified by the ubiquitin-related protein RUB1 [11].
  • These results suggest that the COI1-mediated JA response is dependent on the SCF(COI1) complexes in Arabidopsis and that the AXR1-dependent modification of the AtCUL1 subunit of SCF(COI1) complexes is important for JA signaling [12].


  1. The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis. Dharmasiri, S., Dharmasiri, N., Hellmann, H., Estelle, M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Arabidopsis AXR6 encodes CUL1 implicating SCF E3 ligases in auxin regulation of embryogenesis. Hellmann, H., Hobbie, L., Chapman, A., Dharmasiri, S., Dharmasiri, N., del Pozo, C., Reinhardt, D., Estelle, M. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Regulation of flower development in Arabidopsis by SCF complexes. Ni, W., Xie, D., Hobbie, L., Feng, B., Zhao, D., Akkara, J., Ma, H. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. SKP1-SnRK protein kinase interactions mediate proteasomal binding of a plant SCF ubiquitin ligase. Farrás, R., Ferrando, A., Jásik, J., Kleinow, T., Okrész, L., Tiburcio, A., Salchert, K., del Pozo, C., Schell, J., Koncz, C. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The ASK1 and ASK2 genes are essential for Arabidopsis early development. Liu, F., Ni, W., Griffith, M.E., Huang, Z., Chang, C., Peng, W., Ma, H., Xie, D. Plant Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. The axr6 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana define a gene involved in auxin response and early development. Hobbie, L., McGovern, M., Hurwitz, L.R., Pierro, A., Liu, N.Y., Bandyopadhyay, A., Estelle, M. Development (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Ethylene signaling pathway. Stepanova, A.N., Alonso, J.M. Sci. STKE (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The Arabidopsis EIN3 Binding F-Box Proteins EBF1 and EBF2 Have Distinct but Overlapping Roles in Ethylene Signaling. Binder, B.M., Walker, J.M., Gagne, J.M., Emborg, T.J., Hemmann, G., Bleecker, A.B., Vierstra, R.D. Plant Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of the MPN Subunits in COP9 Signalosome Assembly and Activity, and Their Regulatory Interaction with Arabidopsis Cullin3-Based E3 Ligases. Gusmaroli, G., Figueroa, P., Serino, G., Deng, X.W. Plant Cell (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. CUL4 associates with DDB1 and DET1 and its downregulation affects diverse aspects of development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Bernhardt, A., Lechner, E., Hano, P., Schade, V., Dieterle, M., Anders, M., Dubin, M.J., Benvenuto, G., Bowler, C., Genschik, P., Hellmann, H. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. The Arabidopsis cullin AtCUL1 is modified by the ubiquitin-related protein RUB1. del Pozo, J.C., Estelle, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. The SCF(COI1) ubiquitin-ligase complexes are required for jasmonate response in Arabidopsis. Xu, L., Liu, F., Lechner, E., Genschik, P., Crosby, W.L., Ma, H., Peng, W., Huang, D., Xie, D. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
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