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Gene Review

FCA  -  flowering time control protein FCA

Arabidopsis thaliana

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High impact information on FCA

  • The FCA/FY interaction is also required for the downregulation of the floral repressor FLC [1].
  • The nuclear RNA binding protein, FCA, promotes Arabidopsis reproductive development [1].
  • The introduction of FCA intronless transgenes resulted in increased FCA protein levels and accelerated flowering, but no role in flowering was found for products of the shorter transcripts [2].
  • The phenotypes of the 3' end formation esp mutants include impaired termination of the transgene transcripts, early flowering, and enhanced silencing of the FCA-beta mRNA [3].
  • These pathways are represented by the genes CO, FCA, and GA1, which act in the long-day, autonomous, and gibberellin pathways, respectively [4].

Biological context of FCA

  • Here we show that FCA, an RNA-binding protein involved in flowering, binds ABA with high affinity in an interaction that is stereospecific and follows receptor kinetics [5].
  • The inclusion of FCA genomic sequence containing the alternatively processed intron 3 restricted the expression of the transgene predominantly to shoot and root apices and young flower buds [2].
  • Overexpression of AGL28 caused precocious flowering via the upregulation of the expression of FCA and LUMINIDEPENDENS (LD), both floral promoters within the autonomous pathway [6].
  • We report here its demonstration in a plant genome by reconstructing the physical map of a 1.9 Mbp region around the FCA locus of Arabidopsis thaliana [7].
  • Alternative splicing and expression analysis of OsFCA (FCA in Oryza sativa L.), a gene homologous to FCA in Arabidopsis [8].

Associations of FCA with chemical compounds

  • Our results indicate that FCA is an ABA receptor involved in RNA metabolism and in controlling flowering time [5].
  • The RNA-binding protein FCA is an abscisic acid receptor [5].
  • From an analysis of a collection of cDNA and genomic clones, we identified a superfamily of 23 genes encoding all 14 of the Arabidopsis proteasome subunits, designated PAA-PAG and PBA-PBG for Proteasome Alpha and Beta subunits A-G, respectively [9].

Regulatory relationships of FCA

  • FCA interacts with the 3'-end RNA-processing factor FY to autoregulate its own expression post-transcriptionally and to control FLC [10].

Other interactions of FCA


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FCA

  • The fluorescence quantitative PCR analysis showed that the mRNA of OsFCA-1 is the most abundant in the four splicing variants of rice FCA, and its expression level is much higher in differentiating calli than in calli [8].


  1. FY is an RNA 3' end-processing factor that interacts with FCA to control the Arabidopsis floral transition. Simpson, G.G., Dijkwel, P.P., Quesada, V., Henderson, I., Dean, C. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional significance of the alternative transcript processing of the Arabidopsis floral promoter FCA. Macknight, R., Duroux, M., Laurie, R., Dijkwel, P., Simpson, G., Dean, C. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Inaugural Article: Defective RNA processing enhances RNA silencing and influences flowering of Arabidopsis. Herr, A.J., Moln??r, A., Jones, A., Baulcombe, D.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Analysis of flowering time control in Arabidopsis by comparison of double and triple mutants. Reeves, P.H., Coupland, G. Plant Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The RNA-binding protein FCA is an abscisic acid receptor. Razem, F.A., El-Kereamy, A., Abrams, S.R., Hill, R.D. Nature (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Overexpression of AGAMOUS-LIKE 28 (AGL28) promotes flowering by upregulating expression of floral promoters within the autonomous pathway. Yoo, S.K., Lee, J.S., Ahn, J.H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. HAPPY mapping in a plant genome: reconstruction and analysis of a high-resolution physical map of a 1.9 Mbp region of Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 4. Thangavelu, M., James, A.B., Bankier, A., Bryan, G.J., Dear, P.H., Waugh, R. Plant Biotechnol. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Alternative splicing and expression analysis of OsFCA (FCA in Oryza sativa L.), a gene homologous to FCA in Arabidopsis. Du, X., Qian, X., Wang, D., Yang, J. DNA Seq. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular organization of the 20S proteasome gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana. Fu, H., Doelling, J.H., Arendt, C.S., Hochstrasser, M., Vierstra, R.D. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. RNA processing and Arabidopsis flowering time control. Simpson, G.G., Quesada, V., Henderson, I.R., Dijkwel, P.P., Macknight, R., Dean, C. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. OsFY, a homolog of AtFY, encodes a protein that can interact with OsFCA-gamma in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Lu, Q., Xu, Z.K., Song, R.T. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) (2006) [Pubmed]
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