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Chemical Compound Review

alpha-     methyl(4R)-4- [(3S,5R,8R,9S,10S,13R,14S...

Synonyms: NSC-34202, NSC34202, AR-1I2096, AC1L5S3S
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Disease relevance of alpha-


Psychiatry related information on alpha-

  • Factor and reliability analysis were utilized to develop aggregate measures for self-efficacy (Cronbach's Alpha 0.60), intimacy (Cronbach's Alpha 0.80), and environmental-structural support (Cronbach's Alpha 0.72) [6].
  • alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is associated with paired helical filaments of Alzheimer's disease [7].
  • alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors modulate the release of several neurotransmitters implicated in the treatment and pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders [8].
  • Relationships between Alpha (8-12 Hz) activity and cognitive processes during wakefulness raise the possibility of similar relationships between Alpha and cognitive activity during sleep [9].
  • Memory performance was assessed by four tests: Alpha Span, Brown-Peterson, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised (HVLT-R), and Logical Stories [10].

High impact information on alpha-

  • Conversion is dependent on an intact al4 alpha open reading frame [11].
  • alpha beta T cells specifically recognize a ligand composed of a peptide bound to a self-major-histocompatibility-complex molecule, but the recognition of slightly altered ligands by T cells can lead to a partial activation [12].
  • Radiation biology. Alpha-particle after effects [13].
  • alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors appear in rat salivary glands after reserpine treatment [14].
  • alpha Adrenoreceptors but not beta adrenoreceptors increase in rabbit uterus with oestrogen [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of alpha-


Biological context of alpha-


Anatomical context of alpha-


Associations of alpha- with other chemical compounds

  • Furthermore, knockout of mouse GSTA4 and GSTZ1 leads to overexpression of transferases in the Alpha, Mu, and Pi classes, an observation suggesting they are part of an adaptive mechanism that responds to endogenous chemical cues such as 4-hydroxynonenal and tyrosine degradation products [31].
  • HSP70 Induction by ING Proteins Sensitizes Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis [32].
  • (3) Alpha naphthyl-acetate esterase (ANAE) activity was localized in the granules as well as on the membrane of LGL and monocytes [33].
  • Helix 9, the major structural element in the C-terminal region of class Alpha glutathione transferases, forms part of the active site of these enzymes where its dynamic properties modulate both catalytic and ligandin functions [34].
  • The GSH peroxidase (GSH Px) activity toward the toxic steroid hydroperoxides was exerted to almost the same extent by both Alpha-class GSH S-transferases (GSTs), Ya-Ya and Ya-Yc, and by selenium-containing GSH Px (Se-GSH Px) in rat liver cytosol [35].

Gene context of alpha-

  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the involvement of both TFEB and Alpha in this translocation [36].
  • alpha- and beta-Spectrin are major components of a submembrane cytoskeletal network connecting actin filaments to integral plasma membrane proteins [37].
  • Screening of the Alpha class glutathione transferases (GSTs) in the EST database identified 10 putative polymorphisms in the coding region of the GSTA1 and GSTA2 genes, six of which were subsequently verified by sequence analysis [38].
  • For instance, livers had relatively simple GST compositions, consisting of a preponderance of Alpha-class subunits and GSTM1 (when present) [39].
  • Western blotting showed that class Alpha, Mu and Pi GST subunits are not co-ordinately induced with GSTT1, indicating that the expression of GSTT1 is determined, at least in part, by mechanisms distinct from those that regulate levels of other transferases [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of alpha-

  • Patients received alternate 90-second balloon inflations with and without distal perfusion of oxygenated perfluorochemical (Fluosol, Alpha Therapeutic Corp., Los Angeles, California) at 60 ml/min [41].
  • On immunoblotting, HBV transfected cells demonstrate a significant decrease in the level of GST Alpha class [42].
  • A conserved aspartic acid N-capping motif for helix 9 was identified by sequence alignments of the C-terminal regions of class Alpha glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and an analysis by the helix-coil algorithm AGADIR [34].
  • alpha 2A- and alpha 2B-adrenoreceptors (AR), identified by Northern blotting in rat myometrium, showed a differential expression during the course of pregnancy [43].
  • alpha 1-Microglobulin was found by immunofluorescence not to be associated with human lymphoid and nonlymphoid cell lines [44].


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  2. alpha v beta3-dependent cross-presentation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by melanoma cells gives rise to a new tumor antigen. Godefroy, E., Moreau-Aubry, A., Diez, E., Dreno, B., Jotereau, F., Guilloux, Y. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Responsiveness of superficial hand veins to phenylephrine in essential hypertension. Alpha adrenergic blockade during prazosin therapy. Eichler, H.G., Ford, G.A., Blaschke, T.F., Swislocki, A., Hoffman, B.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Point mutation in the beta-spectrin gene associated with alpha I/74 hereditary elliptocytosis. Implications for the mechanism of spectrin dimer self-association. Tse, W.T., Lecomte, M.C., Costa, F.F., Garbarz, M., Feo, C., Boivin, P., Dhermy, D., Forget, B.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Molecular basis for nondeletion alpha-thalassemia in American blacks. Alpha 2(116GAG----UAG). Liebhaber, S.A., Coleman, M.B., Adams, J.G., Cash, F.E., Steinberg, M.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Environmental-structural factors significantly associated with consistent condom use among female sex workers in the Dominican Republic. Kerrigan, D., Ellen, J.M., Moreno, L., Rosario, S., Katz, J., Celentano, D.D., Sweat, M. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II is associated with paired helical filaments of Alzheimer's disease. Xiao, J., Perry, G., Troncoso, J., Monteiro, M.J. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Gender differences in brain metabolic and plasma catecholamine responses to alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade. Schmidt, M.E., Matochik, J.A., Goldstein, D.S., Schouten, J.L., Zametkin, A.J., Potter, W.Z. Neuropsychopharmacology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Reduced Alpha power associated with the recall of mentation from Stage 2 and Stage REM sleep. Esposito, M.J., Nielsen, T.A., Paquette, T. Psychophysiology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Cognitive rehabilitation in the elderly: Effects on memory. Craik, F.I., Winocur, G., Palmer, H., Binns, M.A., Edwards, M., Bridges, K., Glazer, P., Chavannes, R., Stuss, D.T. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. A latent intron-encoded maturase is also an endonuclease needed for intron mobility. Wenzlau, J.M., Saldanha, R.J., Butow, R.A., Perlman, P.S. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Essential flexibility in the T-cell recognition of antigen. Kersh, G.J., Allen, P.M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Radiation biology. Alpha-particle after effects. Evans, H.J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors appear in rat salivary glands after reserpine treatment. Bylund, D.B., Martinez, J.R. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. alpha Adrenoreceptors but not beta adrenoreceptors increase in rabbit uterus with oestrogen. Roberts, J.M., Insel, P.A., Goldfien, R.D., Goldfien, A. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. A prospective study of serum C-reactive protein and colorectal cancer risk in men. Gunter, M.J., Stolzenberg-Solomon, R., Cross, A.J., Leitzmann, M.F., Weinstein, S., Wood, R.J., Virtamo, J., Taylor, P.R., Albanes, D., Sinha, R. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. Selective clustering of GABA(A) and glycine receptors in the mammalian retina. Koulen, P., Sassoè-Pognetto, M., Grünert, U., Wässle, H. J. Neurosci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Human Cytomegalovirus Blocks Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha- and Interleukin-1{beta}-Mediated NF-{kappa}B Signaling. Montag, C., Wagner, J., Gruska, I., Hagemeier, C. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. The Adenovirus E4 ORF3 Protein Binds and Reorganizes the TRIM Family Member Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 Alpha. Yondola, M.A., Hearing, P. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. A Mutation in Alpha Helix 3 of CA Renders Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Cyclosporin A Resistant and Dependent: Rescue by a Second-Site Substitution in a Distal Region of CA. Yang, R., Aiken, C. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. alpha foetoprotein and serum albumin show sequence homology. Ruoslahti, E., Terry, W.D. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  22. alpha, beta, gamma, and delta T cell antigen receptor genes arose early in vertebrate phylogeny. Rast, J.P., Anderson, M.K., Strong, S.J., Luer, C., Litman, R.T., Litman, G.W. Immunity (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of smooth muscle cell phenotype by rat mesangial cells in immune complex nephritis. Alpha-smooth muscle actin is a marker of mesangial cell proliferation. Johnson, R.J., Iida, H., Alpers, C.E., Majesky, M.W., Schwartz, S.M., Pritzi, P., Gordon, K., Gown, A.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Alpha-particle-induced chromosomal instability in human bone marrow cells. Kadhim, M.A., Lorimore, S.A., Hepburn, M.D., Goodhead, D.T., Buckle, V.J., Wright, E.G. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. In vivo coassembly of a divergent beta-tubulin subunit (c beta 6) into microtubules of different function. Joshi, H.C., Yen, T.J., Cleveland, D.W. J. Cell Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated hyperpolarization of locus coeruleus neurons: intracellular studies in vivo. Aghajanian, G.K., VanderMaelen, C.P. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Cancer incidence among Danish Thorotrast-exposed patients. Andersson, M., Storm, H.H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Signalling in T-lymphocyte development: integration of signalling pathways is the key. Zamoyska, R., Lovatt, M. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. alpha 1- and beta 2-adrenergic receptor expression in the Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cell line. Meier, K.E., Snavely, M.D., Brown, S.L., Brown, J.H., Insel, P.A. J. Cell Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. alpha-skeletal and alpha-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart. Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Blau, H., Kedes, L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Glutathione transferases. Hayes, J.D., Flanagan, J.U., Jowsey, I.R. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. HSP70 Induction by ING Proteins Sensitizes Cells to Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis. Feng, X., Bonni, S., Riabowol, K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Large granular lymphocytes in human peripheral blood: ultrastructural and cytochemical characterization of the granules. Grossi, C.E., Cadoni, A., Zicca, A., Leprini, A., Ferrarini, M. Blood (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. A conserved N-capping motif contributes significantly to the stabilization and dynamics of the C-terminal region of class Alpha glutathione S-transferases. Dirr, H.W., Little, T., Kuhnert, D.C., Sayed, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Subunit Ya-specific glutathione peroxidase activity toward cholesterol 7-hydroperoxides of glutathione S-transferases in cytosols from rat liver and skin. Hiratsuka, A., Yamane, H., Yamazaki, S., Ozawa, N., Watabe, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Cloning of an Alpha-TFEB fusion in renal tumors harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q13) chromosome translocation. Davis, I.J., Hsi, B.L., Arroyo, J.D., Vargas, S.O., Yeh, Y.A., Motyckova, G., Valencia, P., Perez-Atayde, A.R., Argani, P., Ladanyi, M., Fletcher, J.A., Fisher, D.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. {beta}-Spectrin functions independently of Ankyrin to regulate the establishment and maintenance of axon connections in the Drosophila embryonic CNS. Garbe, D.S., Das, A., Dubreuil, R.R., Bashaw, G.J. Development (2007) [Pubmed]
  38. Polymorphism of human Alpha class glutathione transferases. Tetlow, N., Liu, D., Board, P. Pharmacogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Subunit diversity and tissue distribution of human glutathione S-transferases: interpretations based on electrospray ionization-MS and peptide sequence-specific antisera. Rowe, J.D., Nieves, E., Listowsky, I. Biochem. J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. Increased bioactivation of dihaloalkanes in rat liver due to induction of class theta glutathione S-transferase T1-1. Sherratt, P.J., Manson, M.M., Thomson, A.M., Hissink, E.A., Neal, G.E., van Bladeren, P.J., Green, T., Hayes, J.D. Biochem. J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Perfluorochemical perfusion during coronary angioplasty in unstable and high-risk patients. Cowley, M.J., Snow, F.R., DiSciascio, G., Kelly, K., Guard, C., Nixon, J.V. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  42. Modulation of glutathione S-transferase alpha by hepatitis B virus and the chemopreventive drug oltipraz. Jaitovitch-Groisman, I., Fotouhi-Ardakani, N., Schecter, R.L., Woo, A., Alaoui-Jamali, M.A., Batist, G. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Characteristics of the alpha 2/beta 2-adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase system in rat myometrium during pregnancy. Mhaouty, S., Cohen-Tannoudji, J., Bouet-Alard, R., Limon-Boulez, I., Maltier, J.P., Legrand, C. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  44. In search of alpha 1-microglobulin on the lymphocyte surface. Akerström, B., Nilsson, K., Berggård, B., Berggård, I. J. Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
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