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Gene Review

DND1  -  cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel 2

Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of DND1

  • The Arabidopsis thaliana dnd1 mutant was previously isolated as a line that failed to produce the HR in response to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogens; plants homozygous for the recessive dnd1-1 mutation still carry out effective gene-for-gene resistance [1].

High impact information on DND1

  • DND1 encodes the same protein as AtCNGC2, a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel of previously unknown organismal function that can allow passage of Ca(2+), K(+) and other cations [Leng, Q., Mercier, R. W., Yao, W. & Berkowitz, G. A. (1999) Plant Physiol. 121, 753-761] [1].
  • Plants mutated at the DND1 locus are defective in HR cell death but retain characteristic responses to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae such as induction of pathogenesis-related gene expression and strong restriction of pathogen growth [2].
  • Gene-for-gene disease resistance without the hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis dnd1 mutant [2].
  • Levels of salicylic acid compounds and mRNAs for pathogenesis-related genes are elevated constitutively in dnd1 plants [2].
  • Several other genes with regulatory functions have been identified by mutation, including DND1, PAD4, CPR6, and SSl1 [3].

Biological context of DND1

  • A previous mutant screen identified Arabidopsis dnd1 and dnd2 "defense, no death" mutants, which exhibit loss of hypersensitive response (HR) cell death without loss of gene-for-gene resistance [4].
  • The dnd1 phenotype is caused by mutation of the gene encoding cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channel AtCNGC2 [4].
  • AtCNGC2 was demonstrated to conduct K(+) and other monovalent cations, but exclude Na(+); this conductivity profile is unique for any ion channel not possessing the amino acid sequence found in the selectivity filter of K(+)-selective ion channels [5].
  • Investigations using the promoter::GUS plants demonstrated that AtCNGC2 is expressed in flowers during organ senescence and in the dehiscence zone of siliques [6].

Anatomical context of DND1

  • Application of cAMP evoked currents in membrane patches of oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA [5].

Associations of DND1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of DND1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DND1


  1. The Arabidopsis dnd1 "defense, no death" gene encodes a mutated cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel. Clough, S.J., Fengler, K.A., Yu, I.C., Lippok, B., Smith, R.K., Bent, A.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Gene-for-gene disease resistance without the hypersensitive response in Arabidopsis dnd1 mutant. Yu, I.C., Parker, J., Bent, A.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. Glazebrook, J. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Arabidopsis DND2, a second cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel gene for which mutation causes the "defense, no death" phenotype. Jurkowski, G.I., Smith, R.K., Yu, I.C., Ham, J.H., Sharma, S.B., Klessig, D.F., Fengler, K.A., Bent, A.F. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Electrophysiological analysis of cloned cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Leng, Q., Mercier, R.W., Hua, B.G., Fromm, H., Berkowitz, G.A. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  6. Developmentally regulated expression of a cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel from Arabidopsis indicates its involvement in programmed cell death. Köhler, C., Merkle, T., Roby, D., Neuhaus, G. Planta (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression of plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels in yeast. Ali, R., Zielinski, R.E., Berkowitz, G.A. J. Exp. Bot. (2006) [Pubmed]
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