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Gene Review


Arabidopsis thaliana

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Disease relevance of PAD4

  • The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene was previously shown to be required for synthesis of camalexin in response to infection by the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola ES4326 but not in response to challenge by the non-host fungal pathogen Cochliobolus carbonum [1].
  • Both PAD4 and NahG acted epistatically to SID regarding the Pst-dependent production of ET that was found to be necessary for the accumulation of camalexin [2].

High impact information on PAD4

  • Epistatic analysis showed that the SA-dependent pathways require two regulators of SA-mediated resistance responses, PAD4 and EDS1 [3].
  • Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4 [4].
  • However, EDS1 dimerization is mediated by different domains to those involved in EDS1-PAD4 association [4].
  • These results demonstrate that NDR1, EDS1, and PAD4 mediate other resistance signaling function(s) in addition to salicylic acid and pathogenesis-related protein accumulation [5].
  • In both responses, EDS1, assisted by its interacting partner, PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4 (PAD4), regulates accumulation of the phenolic defense molecule salicylic acid (SA) and other as yet unidentified signal intermediates [6].

Biological context of PAD4


Associations of PAD4 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of PAD4

  • Yeast two-hybrid analysis reveals that EDS1 can dimerize and interact with PAD4 [4].

Other interactions of PAD4


  1. PAD4 functions upstream from salicylic acid to control defense responses in Arabidopsis. Zhou, N., Tootle, T.L., Tsui, F., Klessig, D.F., Glazebrook, J. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic evidence that expression of NahG modifies defence pathways independent of salicylic acid biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis-Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato interaction. Heck, S., Grau, T., Buchala, A., Métraux, J.P., Nawrath, C. Plant J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Knockout of Arabidopsis accelerated-cell-death11 encoding a sphingosine transfer protein causes activation of programmed cell death and defense. Brodersen, P., Petersen, M., Pike, H.M., Olszak, B., Skov, S., Odum, N., Jørgensen, L.B., Brown, R.E., Mundy, J. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Direct interaction between the Arabidopsis disease resistance signaling proteins, EDS1 and PAD4. Feys, B.J., Moisan, L.J., Newman, M.A., Parker, J.E. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. The chimeric Arabidopsis CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED ION CHANNEL11/12 activates multiple pathogen resistance responses. Yoshioka, K., Moeder, W., Kang, H.G., Kachroo, P., Masmoudi, K., Berkowitz, G., Klessig, D.F. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Salicylic acid-independent ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 signaling in arabidopsis immunity and cell death is regulated by the monooxygenase FMO1 and the Nudix hydrolase NUDT7. Bartsch, M., Gobbato, E., Bednarek, P., Debey, S., Schultze, J.L., Bautor, J., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Salicylic acid-mediated innate immunity in Arabidopsis is regulated by SIZ1 SUMO E3 ligase. Lee, J., Nam, J., Park, H.C., Na, G., Miura, K., Jin, J.B., Yoo, C.Y., Baek, D., Kim, D.H., Jeong, J.C., Kim, D., Lee, S.Y., Salt, D.E., Mengiste, T., Gong, Q., Ma, S., Bohnert, H.J., Kwak, S.S., Bressan, R.A., Hasegawa, P.M., Yun, D.J. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Salicylic acid-mediated cell death in the Arabidopsis len3 mutant. Ishikawa, A., Kimura, Y., Yasuda, M., Nakashita, H., Yoshida, S. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. The disease resistance signaling components EDS1 and PAD4 are essential regulators of the cell death pathway controlled by LSD1 in Arabidopsis. Rustérucci, C., Aviv, D.H., Holt, B.F., Dangl, J.L., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Arabidopsis SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED GENE101 stabilizes and signals within an ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 complex in plant innate immunity. Feys, B.J., Wiermer, M., Bhat, R.A., Moisan, L.J., Medina-Escobar, N., Neu, C., Cabral, A., Parker, J.E. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 regulates salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid/ethylene-dependent responses via EDS1 and PAD4. Brodersen, P., Petersen, M., Bjørn Nielsen, H., Zhu, S., Newman, M.A., Shokat, K.M., Rietz, S., Parker, J., Mundy, J. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Arabidopsis PAD3, a gene required for camalexin biosynthesis, encodes a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. Zhou, N., Tootle, T.L., Glazebrook, J. Plant Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4 encodes a lipase-like gene that is important for salicylic acid signaling. Jirage, D., Tootle, T.L., Reuber, T.L., Frost, L.N., Feys, B.J., Parker, J.E., Ausubel, F.M., Glazebrook, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Plant immunity: the EDS1 regulatory node. Wiermer, M., Feys, B.J., Parker, J.E. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. The C2 domain protein BAP1 negatively regulates defense responses in Arabidopsis. Yang, H., Li, Y., Hua, J. Plant J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Signaling requirements and role of salicylic acid in HRT- and rrt-mediated resistance to turnip crinkle virus in Arabidopsis. Chandra-Shekara, A.C., Navarre, D., Kachroo, A., Kang, H.G., Klessig, D., Kachroo, P. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. Glazebrook, J. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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