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Gene Review

SGR4  -  vesicle transport v-SNARE 11

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ATVTI11, ATVTI1A, MUL8.190, MUL8_190, SHOOT GRAVITROPSIM 4, ...
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High impact information on VTI11

  • Protein pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation experiments reveal that Arabidopsis EPSIN1 interacts with clathrin, VTI11, gamma-adaptin-related protein (gamma-ADR), and vacuolar sorting receptor1 (VSR1) [1].
  • By contrast, in zig/sgr4 mutants, where a SNARE molecule functioning in vacuole biogenesis has been disrupted, the movement of amyloplasts in the endodermis is severely restricted both before and after gravistimulation by reorientation [2].
  • Only VTI11 and VTI12 are expressed at appreciable levels [3].
  • Here, we show that the vti11 zig mutant has defects in vascular patterning and auxin transport [3].
  • The sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants exhibited abnormal gravitropism in both inflorescence stems and hypocotyls [4].

Biological context of VTI11

  • The zig-1 mutant of Arabidopsis lacking Qb-SNARE VTI11 shows little shoot gravitropism and abnormal stem morphology [5].
  • The zip1 mutation may be an indication of the flexibility in plant cell function afforded by gene duplication, particularly among the VTI11 genes and their recently diverged orthologs [5].
  • In addition, these mutants showed normal phototropic responses, suggesting that SGR4, SGR5 and SGR6 genes are specifically involved in gravity perception and/or gravity signal transduction for the shoot gravitropic response [6].

Anatomical context of VTI11

  • Based on these data, we propose that EPSIN1 plays an important role in the vacuolar trafficking of soluble proteins at the trans-Golgi network via its interaction with gamma-ADR, VTI11, VSR1, and clathrin [1].
  • The ZIG gene was found to encode AtVTI11, a protein that is homologous with yeast VTI1 and is involved in vesicle transport [4].

Associations of VTI11 with chemical compounds


Co-localisations of VTI11


Other interactions of VTI11


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VTI11

  • These observations indicate that ZIG and SGR2 are involved in the formation and function of the vacuole, a notion supported by the results of subcellular analysis of the sgr2 and zig mutants with electron microscopy [9].


  1. Arabidopsis EPSIN1 Plays an Important Role in Vacuolar Trafficking of Soluble Cargo Proteins in Plant Cells via Interactions with Clathrin, AP-1, VTI11, and VSR1. Song, J., Lee, M.H., Lee, G.J., Yoo, C.M., Hwang, I. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Amyloplasts and vacuolar membrane dynamics in the living graviperceptive cell of the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Saito, C., Morita, M.T., Kato, T., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. The VTI family of SNARE proteins is necessary for plant viability and mediates different protein transport pathways. Surpin, M., Zheng, H., Morita, M.T., Saito, C., Avila, E., Blakeslee, J.J., Bandyopadhyay, A., Kovaleva, V., Carter, D., Murphy, A., Tasaka, M., Raikhel, N. Plant Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. SGR2, a phospholipase-like protein, and ZIG/SGR4, a SNARE, are involved in the shoot gravitropism of Arabidopsis. Kato, T., Morita, M.T., Fukaki, H., Yamauchi, Y., Uehara, M., Niihama, M., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. Conversion of functional specificity in Qb-SNARE VTI1 homologues of Arabidopsis. Niihama, M., Uemura, T., Saito, C., Nakano, A., Sato, M.H., Tasaka, M., Morita, M.T. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Mutations in the SGR4, SGR5 and SGR6 loci of Arabidopsis thaliana alter the shoot gravitropism. Yamauchi, Y., Fukaki, H., Fujisawa, H., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. A SNARE complex containing SGR3/AtVAM3 and ZIG/VTI11 in gravity-sensing cells is important for Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism. Yano, D., Sato, M., Saito, C., Sato, M.H., Morita, M.T., Tasaka, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. The plant vesicle-associated SNARE AtVTI1a likely mediates vesicle transport from the trans-Golgi network to the prevacuolar compartment. Zheng, H., von Mollard, G.F., Kovaleva, V., Stevens, T.H., Raikhel, N.V. Mol. Biol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Involvement of the vacuoles of the endodermis in the early process of shoot gravitropism in Arabidopsis. Morita, M.T., Kato, T., Nagafusa, K., Saito, C., Ueda, T., Nakano, A., Tasaka, M. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
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