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Gene Review

ACAT2  -  acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase 2

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: AACT2, Acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase 2, EMB1276, EMBRYO DEFECTIVE 1276, MIF21.12, ...
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Disease relevance of ACAT2/EMB1276

  • The fusion protein exhibited thiolase and reductase enzyme activities in crude extracts of recombinant E. coli that were three-fold and nine-fold less than those of the individually expressed thiolase and reductase enzymes, respectively [1].

High impact information on ACAT2/EMB1276

  • The expression pattern of the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase was similar to that of peroxisomal 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, a marker enzyme of fatty acid beta-oxidation, during post-germinative growth [2].
  • Import of the peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 protein 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme a thiolase into glyoxysomes [3].
  • Finally, the addition of zinc to PTS2 protein imports increased the level of thiolase bound and imported into the organelles [3].
  • Mature thiolase alone, lacking the PTS2 signal, was not imported into peroxisomes, confirming that the PTS2 signal is necessary for thiolase import [3].
  • Long-chain (C16 to C20) fatty acyl-CoAs accumulate in kat2 seedlings, indicating that the mutant lacks long-chain thiolase activity [4].

Biological context of ACAT2/EMB1276

  • Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana KAT gene on chromosome 2 (KAT2), which encodes a peroxisomal thiolase, is activated in early seedling growth [4].
  • In order to simplify this pathway for plant-based expression, a library of thiolase and reductase gene fusions was generated by randomly ligating a short core linker DNA sequence to create in-frame fusions between the thiolase and reductase genes [1].

Anatomical context of ACAT2/EMB1276

  • When targeted to the plastid, and coexpressed with a plastid-targeted polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase, the fusion protein enabled PHB formation in Arabidopsis, yielding roughly half the PHB formed in plants expressing individual thiolase, reductase and synthase enzymes [1].

Associations of ACAT2/EMB1276 with chemical compounds

  • We show that 2,4-DB resistance and the associated sucrose dependent seedling growth are due to a large activity decrease of 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, which is involved in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation [5].
  • These data support the hypothesis that CHY1 plays a key role in peroxisomal valine catabolism and that disruption of this enzyme results in accumulation of a toxic intermediate, methacrylyl-CoA, that inhibits 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase activity and thus blocks peroxisomal beta-oxidation [5].
  • This indicates that a defect in one of the thiolase isoenzymes impairs beta-oxidation of OPC-8:0 to JA [6].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACAT2/EMB1276

  • Glyoxysomal proteins are phosphorylated well in the presence of various metal ions and [g-32P]ATP, and one of them is identified as thiolase by immunoprecipitation [7].


  1. A novel thiolase-reductase gene fusion promotes the production of polyhydroxybutyrate in Arabidopsis. Kourtz, L., Dillon, K., Daughtry, S., Madison, L.L., Peoples, O., Snell, K.D. Plant Biotechnol. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A novel acyl-CoA oxidase that can oxidize short-chain acyl-CoA in plant peroxisomes. Hayashi, H., De Bellis, L., Ciurli, A., Kondo, M., Hayashi, M., Nishimura, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Import of the peroxisomal targeting signal type 2 protein 3-ketoacyl-coenzyme a thiolase into glyoxysomes. Johnson, T.L., Olsen, L.J. Plant Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Requirement for 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase-2 in peroxisome development, fatty acid beta-oxidation and breakdown of triacylglycerol in lipid bodies of Arabidopsis seedlings. Germain, V., Rylott, E.L., Larson, T.R., Sherson, S.M., Bechtold, N., Carde, J.P., Bryce, J.H., Graham, I.A., Smith, S.M. Plant J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. An Arabidopsis mutant disrupted in valine catabolism is also compromised in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lange, P.R., Eastmond, P.J., Madagan, K., Graham, I.A. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A defect in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation reduces jasmonic acid accumulation in Arabidopsis. Afitlhile, M.M., Fukushige, H., Nishimura, M., Hildebrand, D.F. Plant Physiol. Biochem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Novel glyoxysomal protein kinase, GPK1, identified by proteomic analysis of glyoxysomes in etiolated cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fukao, Y., Hayashi, M., Hara-Nishimura, I., Nishimura, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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