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Disease relevance of Glyoxysomes

  • E. coli isocitrate lyase, like the enzyme from other prokaryotes, is located in the cytoplasm, whereas in plants, protozoa, algae and fungi this enzyme is found localized in glyoxysomes [1].

High impact information on Glyoxysomes


Biological context of Glyoxysomes


Anatomical context of Glyoxysomes


Associations of Glyoxysomes with chemical compounds

  • Peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a carboxyl tail-anchored, type II (N(cytosol)-C(matrix)) integral membrane protein that functions in the regeneration of NAD(+) in glyoxysomes of germinated oilseeds and protection of peroxisomes in other organisms from toxic H(2)O(2) [15].
  • Ascorbate peroxidase. A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes [16].
  • NADPH is a specific inhibitor of protein import into glyoxysomes [17].
  • The expression pattern of cat1 was similar to that of malate synthase, a characteristic enzyme of glyoxysomes [18].
  • Alternative system of succinate oxidation in glyoxysomes of higher plants [19].

Gene context of Glyoxysomes

  • The temporal and spatial expression patterns of AtACX3 during development and in various tissues were similar to those of the AtSACX and other genes expressed in glyoxysomes [20].
  • Immunoblot analysis using fractions collected on a Percoll density gradient confirmed that GPK1 is localized in glyoxysomes [7].
  • In addition to the chaperones located at the surface of glyoxysomes, two isoforms of Hsp70 and one soluble form of DnaJ protein were detected in the glyoxysomal matrix [21].
  • Each of the four populations exhibited cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and contained mitochondrial DNA and cardiolipin; plastid and glyoxysome content were found to be relatively low [22].
  • Dihydrofolate reductase, a cytoplasmic protein, neither bound to nor imported into the glyoxysomes [23].


  1. The structure and domain organization of Escherichia coli isocitrate lyase. Britton, K.L., Abeysinghe, I.S., Baker, P.J., Barynin, V., Diehl, P., Langridge, S.J., McFadden, B.A., Sedelnikova, S.E., Stillman, T.J., Weeradechapon, K., Rice, D.W. Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Acquisition of membrane lipids by differentiating glyoxysomes: role of lipid bodies. Chapman, K.D., Trelease, R.N. J. Cell Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Investigation of the glyoxysome-peroxisome transition in germinating cucumber cotyledons using double-label immunoelectron microscopy. Titus, D.E., Becker, W.M. J. Cell Biol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxybutyric acid-resistant mutants of Arabidopsis have defects in glyoxysomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Hayashi, M., Toriyama, K., Kondo, M., Nishimura, M. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Oilseed isocitrate lyases lacking their essential type 1 peroxisomal targeting signal are piggybacked to glyoxysomes. Lee, M.S., Mullen, R.T., Trelease, R.N. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Coordinate expression of transcriptionally regulated isocitrate lyase and malate synthase genes in Brassica napus L. Comai, L., Dietrich, R.A., Maslyar, D.J., Baden, C.S., Harada, J.J. Plant Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Novel glyoxysomal protein kinase, GPK1, identified by proteomic analysis of glyoxysomes in etiolated cotyledons of Arabidopsis thaliana. Fukao, Y., Hayashi, M., Hara-Nishimura, I., Nishimura, M. Plant Cell Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase gene in tobacco increases protection against oxidative stress. Wang, J., Zhang, H., Allen, R.D. Plant Cell Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Proteomic analysis of the Arabidopsis cell wall reveals unexpected proteins with new cellular locations. Slabas, A.R., Ndimba, B., Simon, W.J., Chivasa, S. Biochem. Soc. Trans. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Targeting of glyoxysomal proteins to peroxisomes in leaves and roots of a higher plant. Olsen, L.J., Ettinger, W.F., Damsz, B., Matsudaira, K., Webb, M.A., Harada, J.J. Plant Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Investigation of the energy requirement and targeting signal for the import of glycolate oxidase into glyoxysomes. Horng, J.T., Behari, R., Burke, L.E., Baker, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Oligomerization of malate synthase during glyoxysome biosynthesis. Kruse, C., Kindl, H. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Nicotinamide cofactors (NAD and NADP) in glyoxysomes, mitochondria, and plastids isolated from castor bean endosperm. Donaldson, R.P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Biogenesis of glyoxysomes. Synthesis and intracellular transfer of isocitrate lyase. Zimmermann, R., Neupert, W. Eur. J. Biochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. The sorting signals for peroxisomal membrane-bound ascorbate peroxidase are within its C-terminal tail. Mullen, R.T., Trelease, R.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Ascorbate peroxidase. A prominent membrane protein in oilseed glyoxysomes. Bunkelmann, J.R., Trelease, R.N. Plant Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. NADPH is a specific inhibitor of protein import into glyoxysomes. Pool, M.R., López-Huertas, E., Horng, J.T., Baker, A. Plant J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  18. cDNA cloning and differential gene expression of three catalases in pumpkin. Esaka, M., Yamada, N., Kitabayashi, M., Setoguchi, Y., Tsugeki, R., Kondo, M., Nishimura, M. Plant Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Alternative system of succinate oxidation in glyoxysomes of higher plants. Igamberdiev, A.U., Popov, V.N., Falaleeva, M.I. FEBS Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. ACX3, a novel medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A oxidase from Arabidopsis. Froman, B.E., Edwards, P.C., Bursch, A.G., Dehesh, K. Plant Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The membrane-bound DnaJ protein located at the cytosolic site of glyoxysomes specifically binds the cytosolic isoform 1 of Hsp70 but not other Hsp70 species. Diefenbach, J., Kindl, H. Eur. J. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Population heterogeneity of higher-plant mitochondria in structure and function. Dai, H., Lo, Y.S., Jane, W.N., Lee, L.W., Chiang, K.S. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. The carboxyl terminus of isocitrate lyase is not essential for import into glyoxysomes in an in vitro system. Behari, R., Baker, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
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