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Gene Review

MP  -  auxin response factor 5

Arabidopsis thaliana

Synonyms: ARF5, AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5, F6F9.10, F6F9_10, IAA24, ...
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Disease relevance of MP

  • These experiments provide further evidence that both MP genes encoded by Carmoviruses must function in trans in the same cell in order to mediate cell-to-cell movement [1].

High impact information on MP

  • The Arabidopsis BODENLOS gene encodes an auxin response protein inhibiting MONOPTEROS-mediated embryo patterning [2].
  • Similarly, MP was much more efficient than ARF16 in this process [3].
  • During embryogenesis, as well as organ development, MP is initially expressed in broad domains that become gradually confined towards the vascular tissues [4].
  • Analyses of 5'-leader-reporter gene fusions showed that the uORFs of ETT and MP negatively regulate the translation of the downstream major ORFs, indicating that translation reinitiation is an important step for the expression of these proteins [5].
  • The new member IAA24 has similarity to ARF1, a transcription factor that binds to an auxin response element [6].

Biological context of MP

  • Although both bdl and shy2-2 proteins inhibited MP/ARF5-dependent reporter gene activation, shy2-2 was much less efficient than bdl to interfere with embryonic root initiation when expressed from the BDL promoter [3].
  • These features of the mutant phenotype suggest that the MP gene promotes cell axialization and cell file formation at multiple stages of plant development [7].
  • Our results suggest a model where PIN1 and MP regulate apical patterning partially through the control of CUC gene expression [8].
  • In the course of the isolation of the MONOPTEROS (MP) gene, required for primary root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana, a yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) contig encompassing approximately 2200 kilobases corresponding to 5.5 cM on the top arm of chromosome 1 was established [9].

Regulatory relationships of MP

  • We found evidence that MP expression can be activated by auxin exposure and that PIN1 as well as DR5::GUS expression is defective in mp mutant leaves [10].

Other interactions of MP

  • Taken together the results suggest a feedback regulatory loop that involves auxin, MP and PIN1 and provide novel experimental support for the canalization-of-auxin-flow hypothesis [10].
  • Both MP and NPH4 interact strongly and selectively with themselves and with each other, and are expressed in vastly overlapping domains [11].
  • Overlapping and non-redundant functions of the Arabidopsis auxin response factors MONOPTEROS and NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 4 [11].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MP


  1. Cell-to-cell movement of turnip crinkle virus is controlled by two small open reading frames that function in trans. Li, W.Z., Qu, F., Morris, T.J. Virology (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. The Arabidopsis BODENLOS gene encodes an auxin response protein inhibiting MONOPTEROS-mediated embryo patterning. Hamann, T., Benkova, E., Bäurle, I., Kientz, M., Jürgens, G. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental specificity of auxin response by pairs of ARF and Aux/IAA transcriptional regulators. Weijers, D., Benkova, E., Jäger, K.E., Schlereth, A., Hamann, T., Kientz, M., Wilmoth, J.C., Reed, J.W., Jürgens, G. EMBO J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. The Arabidopsis gene MONOPTEROS encodes a transcription factor mediating embryo axis formation and vascular development. Hardtke, C.S., Berleth, T. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. The Arabidopsis STV1 protein, responsible for translation reinitiation, is required for auxin-mediated gynoecium patterning. Nishimura, T., Wada, T., Yamamoto, K.T., Okada, K. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Protein-protein interactions among the Aux/IAA proteins. Kim, J., Harter, K., Theologis, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  7. Studies on the role of the Arabidopsis gene MONOPTEROS in vascular development and plant cell axialization. Przemeck, G.K., Mattsson, J., Hardtke, C.S., Sung, Z.R., Berleth, T. Planta (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Roles of PIN-FORMED1 and MONOPTEROS in pattern formation of the apical region of the Arabidopsis embryo. Aida, M., Vernoux, T., Furutani, M., Traas, J., Tasaka, M. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Genetic and contig map of a 2200-kb region encompassing 5.5 cM on chromosome 1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Hardtke, C.S., Berleth, T. Genome (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Dynamics of MONOPTEROS and PIN-FORMED1 expression during leaf vein pattern formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Wenzel, C.L., Schuetz, M., Yu, Q., Mattsson, J. Plant J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Overlapping and non-redundant functions of the Arabidopsis auxin response factors MONOPTEROS and NONPHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 4. Hardtke, C.S., Ckurshumova, W., Vidaurre, D.P., Singh, S.A., Stamatiou, G., Tiwari, S.B., Hagen, G., Guilfoyle, T.J., Berleth, T. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
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