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Gene Review

MGM1  -  dynamin-related GTPase MGM1

Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288c

Synonyms: Dynamin-like GTPase MGM1, mitochondrial, MDM17, Mitochondrial division and morphology protein 17, Mitochondrial genome maintenance protein 1, YOR211C, ...
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High impact information on MGM1

  • Our data indicate that mitochondrial membrane remodelling is regulated by cleavage of Mgm1p and show that intramembrane proteolysis by rhomboids controls cellular processes other than signalling [1].
  • Deletion of MGM1 shows that aside from its role in the mitochondrion, the gene has no essential cellular function [2].
  • Mgm1p is a conserved dynamin-related GTPase required for fusion, morphology, inheritance, and the genome maintenance of mitochondria in Saccharomyces cerevisiae [3].
  • We show that near its NH2 terminus Mgm1 contains two conserved hydrophobic segments of which the more COOH-terminal one is cleaved by Pcp1 [4].
  • Specifically, mutations in MGM1 cause mitochondrial fragmentation and a loss of mitochondrial DNA that are suppressed by abolishing DNM1-dependent fission [5].

Biological context of MGM1

  • Examination of mitochondrial morphology in mgm1 cells indicates that fragmentation of mitochondrial reticuli is the primary phenotype associated with loss of MGM1 function, with secondary aggregation of mitochondrial fragments [6].
  • Here, we show that mitochondrial fragmentation and mitochondrial genome loss caused by lesions in MGM1 are suppressed by three novel mutations, gag1, gag2, and gag3 (for glycerol-adapted growth) [7].
  • The previously published nucleotide sequences are in perfect agreement with our sequence except for STE4 and MGM1 [8].
  • The MGM1 gene is located on the right arm of chromosome XV between STE4 and PTP2 [9].
  • These results indicate that Mgm1p is a mitochondrial inheritance and morphology component that functions on the mitochondrial surface [10].

Anatomical context of MGM1

  • Like fzo1 and ugo1 mutants, cells disrupted for the MGM1 gene contain numerous mitochondrial fragments instead of the few long, tubular organelles seen in wild-type cells [11].
  • Fragmentation of mitochondria in mgm1 mutants is rescued by disrupting DNM1, a gene required for mitochondrial division [11].
  • Furthermore, we show that mgm1 mutants fail to fuse both their mitochondrial outer and inner membranes [11].
  • In zygotes formed by mating mgm1 mutants, mitochondria do not fuse and mix their contents [11].

Regulatory relationships of MGM1

  • Our results raise the possibility that Mgm1p regulates fusion of the mitochondrial outer membrane through its interactions with Fzo1p and Ugo1p [11].

Other interactions of MGM1

  • This mgm1 phenotype is identical to that observed in cells with a conditional mutation in FZO1, which encodes a transmembrane GTPase required for mitochondrial fusion, raising the possibility that Mgm1p is also required for fusion [6].
  • Limited proteolysis of the large isoform by the mitochondrial rhomboid protease Pcp1/Rbd1 generates the short isoform of Mgm1 but how this is regulated is unclear [4].
  • We show that Mgm1p serves as an upstream regulator of Tim11p protein stability, ATP synthase assembly, cristae morphology and cytochrome c storage within cristae [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MGM1

  • Electron microscopy demonstrates that although mgm1 mutants display aberrant mitochondrial inner membrane cristae, mgm1 dnm1 double mutants restore normal inner membrane structures [11].


  1. Mitochondrial membrane remodelling regulated by a conserved rhomboid protease. McQuibban, G.A., Saurya, S., Freeman, M. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Mitochondrial DNA maintenance in yeast requires a protein containing a region related to the GTP-binding domain of dynamin. Jones, B.A., Fangman, W.L. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Ups1p, a conserved intermembrane space protein, regulates mitochondrial shape and alternative topogenesis of Mgm1p. Sesaki, H., Dunn, C.D., Iijima, M., Shepard, K.A., Yaffe, M.P., Machamer, C.E., Jensen, R.E. J. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Alternative topogenesis of Mgm1 and mitochondrial morphology depend on ATP and a functional import motor. Herlan, M., Bornhövd, C., Hell, K., Neupert, W., Reichert, A.S. J. Cell Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. The intramitochondrial dynamin-related GTPase, Mgm1p, is a component of a protein complex that mediates mitochondrial fusion. Wong, E.D., Wagner, J.A., Scott, S.V., Okreglak, V., Holewinske, T.J., Cassidy-Stone, A., Nunnari, J. J. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. The dynamin-related GTPase, Mgm1p, is an intermembrane space protein required for maintenance of fusion competent mitochondria. Wong, E.D., Wagner, J.A., Gorsich, S.W., McCaffery, J.M., Shaw, J.M., Nunnari, J. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Gag3p, an outer membrane protein required for fission of mitochondrial tubules. Fekkes, P., Shepard, K.A., Yaffe, M.P. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Sequence and analysis of a 33 kb fragment from the right arm of chromosome XV of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galisson, F., Dujon, B. Yeast (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Normal mitochondrial structure and genome maintenance in yeast requires the dynamin-like product of the MGM1 gene. Guan, K., Farh, L., Marshall, T.K., Deschenes, R.J. Curr. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. The yeast dynamin-like protein, Mgm1p, functions on the mitochondrial outer membrane to mediate mitochondrial inheritance. Shepard, K.A., Yaffe, M.P. J. Cell Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Mgm1p, a dynamin-related GTPase, is essential for fusion of the mitochondrial outer membrane. Sesaki, H., Southard, S.M., Yaffe, M.P., Jensen, R.E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. A novel role of Mgm1p, a dynamin-related GTPase, in ATP synthase assembly and cristae formation/maintenance. Amutha, B., Gordon, D.M., Gu, Y., Pain, D. Biochem. J. (2004) [Pubmed]
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