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Gene Review

ftsI  -  penicillin-binding protein 3

Haemophilus influenzae Rd KW20

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Disease relevance of ftsI

  • Cefuroxime resistance in non-beta-lactamase Haemophilus influenzae is linked to mutations in ftsI [1].
  • OBJECTIVES: To study yearly changes in resistance and to identify ftsI mutations in beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) and TEM-1 beta-lactamase-producing amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant (BLPACR) isolates of Haemophilus influenzae from patients with meningitis [2].
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We investigated mutations in the ftsI gene encoding PBP-3 of H. influenzae isolated from the nasopharynx of children with acute otitis media (AOM) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) [3].

High impact information on ftsI


Chemical compound and disease context of ftsI


Biological context of ftsI


Associations of ftsI with chemical compounds

  • The transformation of H. influenzae Rd strain with amplified ftsI genes from two BLPACR and two BLNAR strains enabled the selection of amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant transformants with the same mutations as their parent strains [8].
  • The MICs of cephalosporin antibiotics for H. influenzae transformants into which the ftsI genes from BLNAR strains of each of the nine subgroups were introduced increased to varying degrees depending on the mutations [2].
  • Strains without mutations in the ftsI gene and that did not contain the bla gene (non-beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-susceptible) were identified in 70.7% of cases [3].


  1. Cefuroxime resistance in non-beta-lactamase Haemophilus influenzae is linked to mutations in ftsI. Straker, K., Wootton, M., Simm, A.M., Bennett, P.M., MacGowan, A.P., Walsh, T.R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. High prevalence of type b beta-lactamase-non-producing ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae in meningitis: the situation in Japan where Hib vaccine has not been introduced. Hasegawa, K., Kobayashi, R., Takada, E., Ono, A., Chiba, N., Morozumi, M., Iwata, S., Sunakawa, K., Ubukata, K. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Evaluation of mutations in penicillin binding protein-3 gene of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae isolated from the nasopharynx of children with acute otitis media. Sakai, A., Hotomi, M., Billal, D.S., Yamauchi, K., Shimada, J., Tamura, S., Fujihara, K., Yamanaka, N. Acta Otolaryngol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular evolution of beta-lactam-resistant Haemophilus influenzae: 9-year surveillance of penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations in isolates from Japan. Sanbongi, Y., Suzuki, T., Osaki, Y., Senju, N., Ida, T., Ubukata, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Genetic approach to study the relationship between penicillin-binding protein 3 mutations and Haemophilus influenzae beta-lactam resistance by using site-directed mutagenesis and gene recombinants. Osaki, Y., Sanbongi, Y., Ishikawa, M., Kataoka, H., Suzuki, T., Maeda, K., Ida, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. In vitro activity of Bay v 3522, a new cephalosporin, compared with activities of other agents. Wise, R., Andrews, J.M., Ashby, J.P., Thornber, D. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. Association of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 3 with beta-lactam resistance in beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Ubukata, K., Shibasaki, Y., Yamamoto, K., Chiba, N., Hasegawa, K., Takeuchi, Y., Sunakawa, K., Inoue, M., Konno, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Contribution of beta-lactamase and PBP amino acid substitutions to amoxicillin/clavulanate resistance in beta-lactamase-positive, amoxicillin/clavulanate-resistant Haemophilus influenzae. Matic, V., Bozdogan, B., Jacobs, M.R., Ubukata, K., Appelbaum, P.C. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (2003) [Pubmed]
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