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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Linear Energy Transfer

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Disease relevance of Linear Energy Transfer


High impact information on Linear Energy Transfer

  • alpha-particles, which are ionising radiation of high linear-energy-transfer emitted, for example, from radon or plutonium, pass through tissue as highly structured tracks [2].
  • PURPOSE: The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide (DOTATOC) has previously been labeled with low linear energy transfer (LET) beta-emitters, such as 177Lu or 90Y, for tumor therapy [3].
  • The mutagenic potential of charged particles of defined linear energy transfer (LET) was assessed using the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus (HGPRT) in primary human fibroblasts [4].
  • M059J cells accumulated mainly in S phase after high linear energy transfer irradiation [5].
  • PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the dependence of p53-gene status on the radiation enhancement of thermosensitivity at different levels of linear energy transfer (LET) [6].

Biological context of Linear Energy Transfer


Anatomical context of Linear Energy Transfer

  • We have characterized a series of 69 independent mutants at the endogenous hprt locus of human TK6 lymphoblasts and over 200 independent S1-deficient mutants of the human x hamster hybrid cell line AL arising spontaneously or following low-fluence exposures to densely ionizing Fe ions (600 MeV/amu, linear energy transfer = 190 keV/microns) [9].

Associations of Linear Energy Transfer with chemical compounds

  • Little is known about radiosensitization produced by iododeoxyuridine (IUDR) with high linear energy transfer radiation [10].
  • The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical [11].
  • We examined the correlation between the production of sucrose radicals and the ion species, as well as LET (linear energy transfer) [12].
  • A technique, Photon Activation Therapy (PAT), is described in which high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiations in the form of Auger electron distributions are generated by a photon beam through photoactivation of stable iodine incorporated as an analog of thymidine (Tyd) in DNA [13].
  • Boron-10 (10B) is a stable isotope which, when irradiated with thermal neutrons, produces a capture reaction yielding high linear energy transfer particles (10B + 1nth----[11B]----4He(alpha) + 7Li + 2.79 MeV) [14].

Gene context of Linear Energy Transfer

  • A survival curve showed an initial shoulder and became steeper beyond 200-250 pCi cell-1 (low linear energy transfer type) [15].
  • RESULTS: For protons, SSB yield decreased with increasing LET (linear energy transfer) [16].
  • These findings are consistent with a model for ssb and dsb induction by high linear energy transfer radiation that involves OH radical medication [17].
  • In deaerated water, for a linear energy transfer (LET) of 250 eV/nm, the yield of HO2/O2- is (6 +/- 2) x 10(-9) mol J-1 [18].
  • The effects of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on mammalian cells have been studied at dose-rates as high as 10(9) Gy/sec delivered as a single 3-nanosecond pulse, and no increase in cytotoxicity was shown compared with delivery at a conventional dose-rate [19].


  1. Effect of exogenous wild-type p53 on melanoma cell death pathways induced by irradiation at different linear energy transfer. Min, F.L., Zhang, H., Li, W.J., Gao, Q.X., Zhou, G.M. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Anim. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Alpha-particle-induced chromosomal instability in human bone marrow cells. Kadhim, M.A., Lorimore, S.A., Hepburn, M.D., Goodhead, D.T., Buckle, V.J., Wright, E.G. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. 213Bi-[DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of pancreatic tumors in a preclinical animal model. Norenberg, J.P., Krenning, B.J., Konings, I.R., Kusewitt, D.F., Nayak, T.K., Anderson, T.L., de Jong, M., Garmestani, K., Brechbiel, M.W., Kvols, L.K. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutation induction by charged particles of defined linear energy transfer. Hei, T.K., Chen, D.J., Brenner, D.J., Hall, E.J. Carcinogenesis (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Different G2/M accumulation in M059J and M059K cells after exposure to DNA double-strand break-inducing agents. Holgersson, A., Heiden, T., Castro, J., Edgren, M.R., Lewensohn, R., Meijer, A.E. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. The dependence of p53 on the radiation enhancement of thermosensitivity at different let. Takahashi, A., Ohnishi, K., Wang, X., Kobayashi, M., Matsumoto, H., Tamamoto, T., Aoki, H., Furusawa, Y., Yukawa, O., Ohnishi, T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Relative biological effectiveness of tritiated water to gamma radiation for germ line mutations. Byrne, B.J., Lee, W.R. Radiat. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of linear energy transfer and dose. Felber, M., Burns, F.J., Garte, S.J. Radiat. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage. Kronenberg, A., Gauny, S., Criddle, K., Vannais, D., Ueno, A., Kraemer, S., Waldren, C.A. Radiation and environmental biophysics. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Radiosensitization produced by iododeoxyuridine with high linear energy transfer heavy ion beams. Linstadt, D., Blakely, E., Phillips, T.L., Castro, J.R. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia. Hauck, M.L., Larsen, R.H., Welsh, P.C., Zalutsky, M.R. Br. J. Cancer (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Investigation of heavy-ion-induced sucrose radicals by electron paramagnetic resonance. Nakagawa, K., Sato, Y. Radiat. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Radiation enhancement with iodinated deoxyuridine. Fairchild, R.G., Brill, A.B., Ettinger, K.V. Investigative radiology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Boron neutron capture therapy of a rat glioma. Clendenon, N.R., Barth, R.F., Gordon, W.A., Goodman, J.H., Alam, F., Staubus, A.E., Boesel, C.P., Yates, A.J., Moeschberger, M.L., Fairchild, R.G. Neurosurgery (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Gallium-67 radiotoxicity in human U937 lymphoma cells. Jonkhoff, A.R., Huijgens, P.C., Versteegh, R.T., van Dieren, E.B., Ossenkoppele, G.J., Martens, H.J., Teule, G.J. Br. J. Cancer (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Evaluation of lesion clustering in irradiated plasmid DNA. Leloup, C., Garty, G., Assaf, G., Cristovão, A., Breskin, A., Chechik, R., Shchemelinin, S., Paz-Elizur, T., Livneh, Z., Schulte, R.W., Bashkirov, V., Milligan, J.R., Grosswendt, B. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. DNA damage produced by exposure of supercoiled plasmid DNA to high- and low-LET ionizing radiation: effects of hydroxyl radical quenchers. Peak, J.G., Ito, T., Robb, F.T., Peak, M.J. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Direct observation of HO2/O2- free radicals generated in water by a high-linear energy transfer pulsed heavy-ion beam. Baldacchino, G., Le Parc, D., Hickel, B., Gardès-Albert, M., Abedinzadeh, Z., Jore, D., Deycard, S., Bouffard, S., Mouton, V., Balanzat, E. Radiat. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of single-pulse (< or = 1 ps) X-rays from laser-produced plasmas on mammalian cells. Shinohara, K., Nakano, H., Miyazaki, N., Tago, M., Kodama, R. J. Radiat. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
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