The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ice Cover

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ice Cover

  • Recent investigations indicate that the sea ice bacteria fall into four major phylogenetic groups: the proteobacteria, the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) group, and the high and low mol percent gram-positive bacteria [1].

High impact information on Ice Cover

  • We find that sea surface temperatures increased by 3.5-4.0 degrees C during the last two glacial-interglacial transitions, synchronous with the global increase in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic warming, but the temperature increase occurred 2,000-3,000 years before the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets melted [2].
  • For example, they might have formed through slow erosion by water running across the surface, either early or late in Mars' history, possibly protected from harsh conditions by ice cover [3].
  • We suggested that this source results from the exclusion of O2 during the freezing of aerated meltstream water at the bottom of the ice cover, and predicted that this physical mechanism should also enhance the other atmospheric gases [4].
  • Radioactive cesium from the Chernobyl accident in the Greenland Ice Sheet [5].
  • Bacterial communities of Baltic seawater and sea ice from a coastal site in southwest Finland were used in two batch culture experiments run for 17 or 18 days at 0 degrees C. Bacterial abundance, cell volume, and leucine and thymidine incorporation were measured during the experiments [6].

Biological context of Ice Cover

  • The closest described neighbour in terms of 16S rRNA gene sequence identity was Psychroflexus torquis ACAM 623(T) (94.4 % over 1423 bases), an obligate psychrophile from Antarctic sea-ice [7].

Associations of Ice Cover with chemical compounds

  • Analyses of gases trapped in continental ice sheets have shown that the concentration of CO2 in the Earth's early atmosphere increased from 180 to 280 p.p.m. during the most recent glacial-interglacial transition [8].
  • The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (20:5 omega 3) was detected in all of the sea ice isolates at levels ranging from 2 to 16% of the total fatty acids [9].
  • In particular, low (<0.18) 240Pu/239Pu ratios indicate that plutonium from sources in the Kara Sea and Novaya Zemlya is transported across the basin toward the North Atlantic. The results have implications for the ability of sea ice to incorporate, intercept, and transport contaminants in the Arctic Ocean [10].
  • The ratio of alpha/gamma-HCH in Antarctic air, sea ice and snow was <1, illustrative of a predominance of influx of lindane versus technical HCH to the regional environment [11].
  • The energy surplus under these conditions is stored in triacylglycerols, the main energy sink in Antarctic sea ice diatoms under N-limitation [12].

Gene context of Ice Cover

  • We studied a sample from the GISP 2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project) ice core to determine the diversity and survival of microorganisms trapped in the ice at least 120,000 years ago [13].
  • Physicochemical parameters for growth of the sea ice bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611(T) and Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 [14].
  • By applying fluorescently tagged substrate analogues to measure leucine-aminopeptidase and chitobiase activity, the occurrence of extracellular enzymatic activity (EEA) with remarkably low temperature optima (15 degrees C) was documented in sea-ice samples [15].
  • As surface temperatures fell on Mars, the presence of an insulating ice cover would have allowed liquid water to exist, fed by transitory surface melting [16].
  • The amounts of 137Cs and 90Sr have been determined in the inflows and outflows of the Norwegian sub-alpine lake, Ovre Heimdalsvatn, in March/April during the period of ice-cover, when discharge is extremely stable [17].


  1. Poles apart: biodiversity and biogeography of sea ice bacteria. Staley, J.T., Gosink, J.J. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Magnitude and timing of temperature change in the Indo-Pacific warm pool during deglaciation. Visser, K., Thunell, R., Stott, L. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Groundwater formation of martian valleys. Malin, M.C., Carr, M.H. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Perennial N2 supersaturation in an Antarctic lake. Wharton, R.A., McKay, C.P., Mancinelli, R.L., Simmons, G.M. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Radioactive cesium from the Chernobyl accident in the Greenland Ice Sheet. Davidson, C.I., Harrington, J.R., Stephenson, M.J., Monaghan, M.C., Pudykiewicz, J., Schell, W.R. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. Responses of Baltic Sea ice and open-water natural bacterial communities to salinity change. Kaartokallio, H., Laamanen, M., Sivonen, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Psychroflexus tropicus sp. nov., an obligately halophilic Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group bacterium from an Hawaiian hypersaline lake. Donachie, S.P., Bowman, J.P., Alam, M. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. A carbon isotope record of CO2 levels during the late Quaternary. Jasper, J.P., Hayes, J.M. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  9. Shewanella gelidimarina sp. nov. and Shewanella frigidimarina sp. nov., novel Antarctic species with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and grow anaerobically by dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction. Bowman, J.P., McCammon, S.A., Nichols, D.S., Skerratt, J.H., Rea, S.M., Nichols, P.D., McMeekin, T.A. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. The role of sea ice in the fate of contaminants in the Arctic Ocean: plutonium atom ratios in the Fram Strait. Masqué, P., Cochran, J.K., Hebbeln, D., Hirschberg, D.J., Dethleff, D., Winkler, A. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Atmospheric concentrations and air-water flux of organochlorine pesticides along the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Dickhut, R.M., Cincinelli, A., Cochran, M., Ducklow, H.W. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Photosynthetic energy conversion under extreme conditions--I: important role of lipids as structural modulators and energy sink under N-limited growth in Antarctic sea ice diatoms. Mock, T., Kroon, B.M. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of microorganisms isolated from a deep greenland glacier ice core. Miteva, V.I., Sheridan, P.P., Brenchley, J.E. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Physicochemical parameters for growth of the sea ice bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611(T) and Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158. Nichols, D.S., Greenhill, A.R., Shadbolt, C.T., Ross, T., McMeekin, T.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Remarkably low temperature optima for extracellular enzyme activity from Arctic bacteria and sea ice. Huston, A.L., Krieger-Brockett, B.B., Deming, J.W. Environ. Microbiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Are there carbonate deposits in the Valles Marineris, Mars? McKay, C.P., Nedell, S.S. Icarus. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Winter transport of Chernobyl radionuclides from a montane catchment to an ice-covered lake. Brittain, J.E., Bjørnstad, H.E., Salbu, B., Oughton, D.H. The Analyst. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities