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MeSH Review

Oncolytic Viruses

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Disease relevance of Oncolytic Viruses


High impact information on Oncolytic Viruses

  • Unlike our previous findings with less potent oncolytic viruses, though, the preadministration of cyclophosphamide did not enhance this survival or affect oncolytic virus tumor distribution and tumor volume [5].
  • Based on these results the DeltaE1B or ONYX-015 virus has been proposed to be an oncolytic virus which might be useful to treat p53-deficient tumors [6].
  • At the level of transduction that can be achieved currently with oncolytic viruses given intravenously, drugs such as RAD001, which do not require activation by the virus, produce greater increases in efficacy than prodrugs such as CB1954 [7].
  • We suggest that the SCGB2A2 promoter/enhancer should be particularly advantageous for gene therapy protocols involving oncolytic viruses or toxic gene transfer via adenovectors to mammary tumors [8].
  • The data suggest mechanisms for disruption of nucleolar function common to oncogenic or oncolytic virus lytic growth and cell transformation [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Oncolytic Viruses


Anatomical context of Oncolytic Viruses

  • We have investigated this hypothesis by analyzing the apoptotic effects of various oncolytic viruses on the human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells and their derivatives lacking either p53 or bax gene [12].

Gene context of Oncolytic Viruses

  • These studies demonstrate that an oncolytic virus driven by the telomerase promoter can be used to effectively kill a wide variety of cancer cell types and has the potential to treat primary and metastatic cancer of diverse origins [13].
  • Molecular therapeutic strategies to normalize p53 signaling in cells with mutant p53 include pharmacologic rescue of mutant protein, gene therapy approaches, small-molecule agonists of downstream inhibitory genes, antisense approaches and oncolytic viruses [14].
  • These results indicate that M protein mutant viruses are superior candidates as oncolytic viruses for therapies of prostate tumors, but future strategies for use of VSV will require testing individual tumors for their susceptibility to virus infection [15].
  • Several strategies may be employed to achieve the tumor-selective gene delivery that is required for the success of P450 GDEPT; these include the use of tumor-targeted cellular vectors and tumor-selective oncolytic viruses [16].
  • An international meeting was held on the development and application of replicating viruses for cancer therapy this past March in Banff, Alberta. In this review, using the presentations at this meeting as a backdrop, we discuss how recent scientific and clinical findings are reshaping the development of oncolytic virus therapeutics [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Oncolytic Viruses


  1. Positron emission tomography imaging for herpes virus infection: Implications for oncolytic viral treatments of cancer. Bennett, J.J., Tjuvajev, J., Johnson, P., Doubrovin, M., Akhurst, T., Malholtra, S., Hackman, T., Balatoni, J., Finn, R., Larson, S.M., Federoff, H., Blasberg, R., Fong, Y. Nat. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Brain tumor oncolysis with replication-conditional herpes simplex virus type 1 expressing the prodrug-activating genes, CYP2B1 and secreted human intestinal carboxylesterase, in combination with cyclophosphamide and irinotecan. Tyminski, E., Leroy, S., Terada, K., Finkelstein, D.M., Hyatt, J.L., Danks, M.K., Potter, P.M., Saeki, Y., Chiocca, E.A. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus vector g47delta in combination with androgen ablation for the treatment of human prostate adenocarcinoma. Fukuhara, H., Martuza, R.L., Rabkin, S.D., Ito, Y., Todo, T. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. A novel conditionally replicative adenovirus vector targeting telomerase-positive tumor cells. Huang, Q., Zhang, X., Wang, H., Yan, B., Kirkpatrick, J., Dewhrist, M.W., Li, C.Y. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Cyclophosphamide allows for in vivo dose reduction of a potent oncolytic virus. Kambara, H., Saeki, Y., Chiocca, E.A. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Infectivity and expression of the early adenovirus proteins are important regulators of wild-type and DeltaE1B adenovirus replication in human cells. Steegenga, W.T., Riteco, N., Bos, J.L. Oncogene (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Late expression of nitroreductase in an oncolytic adenovirus sensitizes colon cancer cells to the prodrug CB1954. Lukashev, A.N., Fuerer, C., Chen, M.J., Searle, P., Iggo, R. Hum. Gene Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. The human SCGB2A2 (mammaglobin-1) promoter/enhancer in a helper-dependent adenovirus vector directs high levels of transgene expression in mammary carcinoma cells but not in normal nonmammary cells. Shi, C.X., Long, M.A., Liu, L., Graham, F.L., Gauldie, J., Hitt, M.M. Mol. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Interactions of minute virus of mice and adenovirus with host nucleoli. Walton, T.H., Moen, P.T., Fox, E., Bodnar, J.W. J. Virol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Cisplatin-induced GADD34 upregulation potentiates oncolytic viral therapy in the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Adusumilli, P.S., Chan, M.K., Chun, Y.S., Hezel, M., Chou, T.C., Rusch, V.W., Fong, Y. Cancer Biol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Arrest of Daudi cell growth by inactive influenza virus in-vitro. Weil-Hillman, G., Zakay-Rones, Z. Scanning electron microscopy. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Induction of p53-dependent apoptosis in HCT116 tumor cells by RNA viruses and possible implications in virus-mediated oncolysis. Huang, S., Qu, L.K., Koromilas, A.E. Cell Cycle (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Conditionally replicative adenovirus driven by the human telomerase promoter provides broad-spectrum antitumor activity without liver toxicity. Irving, J., Wang, Z., Powell, S., O'Sullivan, C., Mok, M., Murphy, B., Cardoza, L., Lebkowski, J.S., Majumdar, A.S. Cancer Gene Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Molecular neuro-oncology and the development of targeted therapeutic strategies for brain tumors. Part 4: p53 signaling pathway. Newton, H.B. Expert review of anticancer therapy. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Sensitivity of prostate tumors to wild type and M protein mutant vesicular stomatitis viruses. Ahmed, M., Cramer, S.D., Lyles, D.S. Virology (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Cytochrome P450 gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) for cancer. Chen, L., Waxman, D.J. Curr. Pharm. Des. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Getting oncolytic virus therapies off the ground. Bell, J.C., Lichty, B., Stojdl, D. Cancer Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
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