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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Kallikrein-like proteinase from bushmaster snake venom.

A kallikrein-like proteinase of Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) venom, designated LV-Ka, was purified by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatographies. Physicochemical studies indicated that the purified enzyme is a 33 kDa monomeric glycoprotein, the Mr of which fell to 28 kDa after deglycosylation with PNGase F. Approximately 77% of the protein sequence was determined by sequencing the various fragments derived from digestions with endoproteases. The partial sequence obtained suggests that LV-Ka is of a similar size to other serine proteinases (i.e., approximately 234 amino acid residues). Sequence studies on the NH2-terminal region of the protein indicate that LV-Ka shares a high degree of sequence homology with the kallikrein-like enzymes EI and EII from Crotalus atrox, with crotalase from Crotalus adamanteus and significant homology with other serine proteinases from snake venoms and vertebrate serum enzymes. LV-Ka showed kallikrein-like activity, releasing bradikinin from kininogen as evidenced by guinea pig bioassay. In addition, intravenous injection of the proteinase (0.8 microg/g) was shown to lower blood pressure in experimental rats. In vitro, the isolated proteinase was shown to have neither fibrin(ogeno)lytic activity nor coagulant effect. LV-Ka was active upon the kallikrein substrates S-2266 and S-2302 (specific activity=13.0 and 31.5 U/mg, respectively; crude venom=0.25 and 6.0 U/mg) but had no proteolytic effect on dimethylcasein and insulin B chain. Its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NPGB and PMSF, indicating that the enzyme is a serine proteinase. Interestingly, one of the other reactions catalyzed by plasma kallikrein, the activation of plasminogen was one of the activities exhibited by LV-Ka.[1]


  1. Kallikrein-like proteinase from bushmaster snake venom. Felicori, L.F., Souza, C.T., Velarde, D.T., Magalhaes, A., Almeida, A.P., Figueiredo, S., Richardson, M., Diniz, C.R., Sanchez, E.F. Protein Expr. Purif. (2003) [Pubmed]
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