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Gene Review

Kng1  -  kininogen 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: KINKG, KINKH, KINT1G, Kininogen-1, Kng, ...
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Disease relevance of Kng1


High impact information on Kng1

  • Rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture express kallikrein, kininogen, and bradykininase activity [4].
  • Other serine proteinases, including trypsin, either did not induce contraction in the absence of added kininogen or did so minimally [5].
  • Although small amounts of kininogen-like substrate were found in uterine tissue, detectable kinin levels (greater than 4 pg) could not be found in bathing media during maximal kallikrein-induced contractions or after uterine tissue was incubated with high concentrations of the enzyme in the presence of SQ 20881, a kininase II inhibitor [5].
  • Kallikrein caused an immediate series of rhythmic contractions which could be increased gradually with subsequent addition of kininogen substrate [5].
  • Proteolysis of plasma high molecular weight kininogen (HK) yielding bradykinin and cleaved HK (HKa) was faster in Lewis than in Fischer or Buffalo rat plasma [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Kng1


Biological context of Kng1


Anatomical context of Kng1

  • Incubation of normal mouse mast cells with affinity-purified GEF or bradykinin, a product of cleavage of kininogen by kallikrein, resulted in the release of histamine and arachidonate from the cells [15].
  • In this study, we constructed a series of chimeric kininogen genes by exchanging equivalent restriction fragments of the K and T genes and examined the sequences and the mechanisms governing the different expression patterns of the kininogen genes by introducing the chimeric genes into heterologous COS cells [16].
  • Kininogen and kinin in experimental spinal cord injury [17].
  • Total kininogen levels in the hypothalamus were undetectable during pregnancy; however, anterior pituitary kininogen levels increased markedly from days 15-22 [18].
  • The incubation of four rat uterine horns with kallikrein in the presence of a uterine horn previously depleted of kininogen elicited contractions of the depleted uterus [19].

Associations of Kng1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Kng1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Kng1

  • The present investigation using molecular cloning and sequence analysis concerns the examination of the molecular basis for different expression patterns of two types of the rat kininogen genes [26].
  • Specific activity, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was 0.972 mg kininogen equivalent per mg protein [27].
  • GKLE, kininogen, and bradykininase activity were all present in VSM cells grown in defined media that contain no serum, thus eliminating any contamination or artefacts from fetal calf serum in standard culture media [4].
  • The purified enzyme has N alpha-tosyl-L-arginine methyl esterase activity with a pH optimum at 9.0, kinin-releasing activity from a purified low molecular weight kininogen, and a parallelism with standard curves of rat urinary kallikrein in a direct radioimmunoassay [28].
  • It hydrolyzed benzyloxylcarbonyl-Gly-Gly-Arg-amino-4-trifluoromethyl coumarin, and a Km of 53 microM and a Vmax of 63 mumol/min/mg of enzyme were obtained at pH 8.0 and 37 degrees C. The enzyme cleaved kininogen substrates to produce kinin which was measured by bioassay or radioimmunoassay [29].


  1. Genetic kininogen deficiency contributes to aortic aneurysm formation but not to atherosclerosis. Kaschina, E., Stoll, M., Sommerfeld, M., Steckelings, U.M., Kreutz, R., Unger, T. Physiol. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Kallikrein-kininogen system activation and bradykinin (B2) receptors in indomethacin induced enterocolitis in genetically susceptible Lewis rats. Stadnicki, A., Sartor, R.B., Janardham, R., Stadnicka, I., Adam, A.A., Blais, C., Colman, R.W. Gut (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential effects of ureteral obstruction on rat kininogen gene family. el-Dahr, S.S., Dipp, S. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture express kallikrein, kininogen, and bradykininase activity. Oza, N.B., Schwartz, J.H., Goud, H.D., Levinsky, N.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Kallikrein-induced uterine contraction independent of kinin formation. Chao, J., Buse, J., Shimamoto, K., Margolius, H.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. The mutation Ser511Asn leads to N-glycosylation and increases the cleavage of high molecular weight kininogen in rats genetically susceptible to inflammation. Isordia-Salas, I., Pixley, R.A., Parekh, H., Kunapuli, S.P., Li, F., Stadnicki, A., Lin, Y., Sartor, R.B., Colman, R.W. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Comparative study of endotoxin-induced hypotension in kininogen-deficient rats with that in normal rats. Ueno, A., Ishida, H., Oh-ishi, S. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. A possible alternative mechanism of kinin generation in vivo by cathepsin L. Puzer, L., Vercesi, J., Alves, M.F., Barros, N.M., Araujo, M.S., Aparecida Juliano, M., Reis, M.L., Juliano, L., Carmona, A.K. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Effect of dexamethasone on kininogen production by a rat hepatoma cell line. Baussant, T., Michaud, A., Bouhnik, J., Savoie, F., Alhenc-Gelas, F., Corvol, P. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Roles of mast cells and PMN leukocytes in cardiotoxin-induced rat paw edema. Wang, J.P., Teng, C.M. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  11. Acute pulmonary edema and plasma kininogen consumption in the adrenaline-treated rat: inhibition by acetylsalicylic acid and resistance to salicylate and indomethacin. Rothschild, A.M., Cordeiro, R.S., Castania, A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  12. Structure and expression of the genes for major acute phase alpha 1-protein (thiostatin) and kininogen in the rat. Fung, W.P., Schreiber, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Differing utilization of homologous transcription initiation sites of rat K and T kininogen genes under inflammation condition. Kageyama, R., Kitamura, N., Ohkubo, H., Nakanishi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Primary structure of a gene encoding rat T-kininogen. Anderson, K.P., Croyle, M.L., Lingrel, J.B. Gene (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Release of histamine and arachidonate from mouse mast cells induced by glycosylation-enhancing factor and bradykinin. Ishizaka, T., Iwata, M., Ishizaka, K. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Localization of DNA sequences governing alternative mRNA production of rat kininogen genes. Kakizuka, A., Kitamura, N., Nakanishi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Kininogen and kinin in experimental spinal cord injury. Xu, J., Hsu, C.Y., Junker, H., Chao, S., Hogan, E.L., Chao, J. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Changes in kininogens and kallikrein in the plasma, brain, and uterus during pregnancy in the rat. Brann, D.W., Greenbaum, L., Mahesh, V.B., Gao, X. Endocrinology (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Rat uterine contraction by kallikrein and its dependence on uterine kininogen. Figueiredo, A.F., Salgado, A.H., Siqueira, G.R., Velloso, C.R., Beraldo, W.T. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. The relationship between rat major acute phase protein and the kininogens. Anderson, K.P., Heath, E.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  21. Identification of sequences mediating interleukin-6 induction of a rat T kininogen gene. Mann, E.A., Croyle, M.L., Lingrel, J.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification and characterization of two kinds of low molecular weight kininogens from rat (non-inflamed) plasma. One resistant and the second sensitive to rat glandular kallikreins. Enjyoji, K., Kato, H., Hayashi, I., Oh-ishi, S., Iwanaga, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of serine proteinases isolated from rat submaxillary gland: with special reference to the degradation of rat kininogens by these enzymes. Kato, H., Nakanishi, E., Enjyoji, K., Hayashi, I., Oh-ishi, S., Iwanaga, S. J. Biochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  24. Modification of oestrogen-induced uterine hyperaemia by drugs in the ovariectomized rat. Phaily, S., Senior, J. J. Reprod. Fertil. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Isolation and properties of a new kallikrein inhibitor from Tityus serrulatus venom. Ferreira, L.A., Zingalli, R., Habermehl, G., Lebrun, I. J. Protein Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Differing expression patterns and evolution of the rat kininogen gene family. Kitagawa, H., Kitamura, N., Hayashida, H., Miyata, T., Nakanishi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Purification and characterization of acute phase rat plasma thiostatin. Rusiniak, M.E., Wagh, P.V., Bedi, G.S., Back, N. Prep. Biochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of tissue kallikrein in brain and in the cell-free translation product encoded by brain mRNA. Chao, J., Woodley, C., Chao, L., Margolius, H.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and characterization of rat urinary esterase A, a plasminogen activator. Chao, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
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