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Gene Review

Plg  -  plasminogen

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Plasminogen
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Disease relevance of Plg


Psychiatry related information on Plg

  • As such, localized disruption of IEGs Arc or c-fos by intrahippocampal administration of antisense oligonucleotides or germline disruption of the IEGs c-fos, tissue plasminogen activator, or zif268 impairs consolidation of long-term memory formation, without affecting learning or short-term memory [6].

High impact information on Plg


Chemical compound and disease context of Plg


Biological context of Plg


Anatomical context of Plg


Associations of Plg with chemical compounds

  • Based on immunoprecipitation with specific antisera, we have identified three of these proteins as plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1, ceruloplasmin, and complement component C3 [25].
  • Blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, plasma levels of free fatty acid, triacylglycerol, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in OLETF rats were significantly higher than those in nondiabetic control [Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO)] rats at 29 weeks [26].
  • The results suggest that this effect is caused primarily by an inhibition in ECM degradation via serine proteases including the plasminogen system [27].
  • Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 messenger RNA expression is induced in rat hepatocytes in vivo by dexamethasone [28].
  • The combined effects of orchiectomy and estrogen administration on synthesis of selected hepatic secretory proteins--antithrombin (AT) III, plasminogen, fibrinogen, factor II (prothrombin), factor VII, fibronectin, and albumin--were studied using the isolated rat liver perfused in vitro for ten hours [29].

Physical interactions of Plg


Enzymatic interactions of Plg

  • Because it exists in both a mitogenically inactive single-chain form and an active two-chain form, we were interested in determining whether plasminogen activators could properly cleave single-chain hepatocyte growth factor to generate active two-chain hepatocyte growth factor [17].
  • These results indicate that autoantibody obtained from the immune deposits in the glomeruli of rats with active Heymann nephritis does not inhibit the binding of plasminogen to gp330 but does significantly alter the urokinase catalyzed activation of plasminogen to plasmin [34].

Regulatory relationships of Plg


Other interactions of Plg

  • This is in agreement with the observation that a great reduction in FN degradation is observed if the cells are pre-incubated with carboxypeptidase B, which prevents plasminogen binding to the cells [22].
  • FRT cells also express annexin II, a plasminogen receptor, suggesting that plasmin activity is associated with the pericellular enviroment [22].
  • In addition, secretion of plasminogen activators into the medium was unchanged after irradiation, while secretion of Timp2 increased [40].
  • There was no significant difference in the binding of the two carbohydrate forms of plasminogen to gp330 [2].
  • Transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) treatment of rat osteoblast-rich calvarial cells or of the clonal osteogenic sarcoma cells, UMR 106-01, resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of plasminogen activator (PA) activity, and increased production of 3.2 kb mRNA and protein for PA inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) [41].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Plg


  1. Secretion of Annexin II via activation of insulin receptor and insulin-like growth factor receptor. Zhao, W.Q., Chen, G.H., Chen, H., Pascale, A., Ravindranath, L., Quon, M.J., Alkon, D.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of the rat Heymann nephritis autoantigen (GP330) as a receptor site for plasminogen. Kanalas, J.J., Makker, S.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Effects of plasminogen and interleukin-1 beta on bone resorption in vitro. Panagakos, F.S., Jandinski, J.J., Feder, L., Kumar, S. Biochimie (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Prevention of aneurysm development and rupture by local overexpression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Allaire, E., Hasenstab, D., Kenagy, R.D., Starcher, B., Clowes, M.M., Clowes, A.W. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Thrombolytic properties of Desmodus rotundus (vampire bat) salivary plasminogen activator in experimental pulmonary embolism in rats. Witt, W., Baldus, B., Bringmann, P., Cashion, L., Donner, P., Schleuning, W.D. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Insights into immediate-early gene function in hippocampal memory consolidation using antisense oligonucleotide and fluorescent imaging approaches. Guzowski, J.F. Hippocampus. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Ovarian plasminogen activator: relationship to ovulation and hormonal regulation. Beers, W.H., Strickland, S., Reich, E. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Proliferation of human smooth muscle cells promoted by lipoprotein(a). Grainger, D.J., Kirschenlohr, H.L., Metcalfe, J.C., Weissberg, P.L., Wade, D.P., Lawn, R.M. Science (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. Plaminogen is synthesized by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. Bohmfalk, J.F., Fuller, G.M. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Interleukin 1 and lipopolysaccharide induce an inhibitor of tissue-type plasminogen activator in vivo and in cultured endothelial cells. Emeis, J.J., Kooistra, T. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Chronic nicotine treatment enhances focal ischemic brain injury and depletes free pool of brain microvascular tissue plasminogen activator in rats. Wang, L., Kittaka, M., Sun, N., Schreiber, S.S., Zlokovic, B.V. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Mycophenolate mofetil slows progression in anti-thy1-induced chronic renal fibrosis but is not additive to a high dose of enalapril. Krämer, S., Loof, T., Martini, S., Rückert, M., Wang, Y., Böhler, T., Shimizu, F., Kawachi, H., Neumayer, H.H., Peters, H. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of vapiprost, a novel thromboxane receptor antagonist, on thrombus formation and vascular patency after thrombolysis by tissue-type plasminogen activator. Matsuno, H., Uematsu, T., Umemura, K., Takiguchi, Y., Wada, K., Nakashima, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and other parameters of fibrinolysis in the early stages of taurocholate acute pancreatitis in rats. Rydzewska, G., Kosidlo, S., Gabryelewicz, A., Rydzewski, A. Int. J. Pancreatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Imidapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, inhibits thrombosis via reduction in aortic plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Mitsui, T., Chishima, S., Odawara, A., Ohtani, A. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Organization of the fibronectin gene provides evidence for exon shuffling during evolution. Patel, R.S., Odermatt, E., Schwarzbauer, J.E., Hynes, R.O. EMBO J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Activation of hepatocyte growth factor by the plasminogen activators uPA and tPA. Mars, W.M., Zarnegar, R., Michalopoulos, G.K. Am. J. Pathol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification and partial characterization by chemical cross-linking of a binding protein for tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) on rat hepatoma cells. A plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1-independent t-PA receptor. Bu, G., Morton, P.A., Schwartz, A.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Real-time imaging of the axonal transport of granules containing a tissue plasminogen activator/green fluorescent protein hybrid. Lochner, J.E., Kingma, M., Kuhn, S., Meliza, C.D., Cutler, B., Scalettar, B.A. Mol. Biol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of urokinase- and tissue-type plasminogen activator gene expression in the rat seminiferous epithelium. Vihko, K.K., Penttilä, T.L., Parvinen, M., Belin, D. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of rat granulosa cell plasminogen activator system: influence of interleukin-1 beta and ovarian follicular development. Karakji, E.G., Tsang, B.K. Biol. Reprod. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. The role of proteases in fibronectin matrix remodeling in thyroid epithelial cell monolayer cultures. Nezi, L., Greco, D., Nitsch, L., Garbi, C. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. ACE inhibition reduces activity of the plasminogen/plasmin and MMP systems in the brain of spontaneous hypertensive stroke-prone rats. Liebetrau, M., Burggraf, D., Wunderlich, N., Jäger, G., Linz, W., Hamann, G.F. Neurosci. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Tissue plasminogen activator contributes to the late phase of LTP and to synaptic growth in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Baranes, D., Lederfein, D., Huang, Y.Y., Chen, M., Bailey, C.H., Kandel, E.R. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Two-dimensional gel analysis of secreted proteins induced by interleukin-1 beta in rat astrocytes. Chang, J.W., Young, D.A., Coleman, P.D., O'Banion, M.K. Neurochem. Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Calorie Restriction Improves Cardiovascular Risk Factors via Reduction of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species in Type II Diabetic Rats. Minamiyama, Y., Bito, Y., Takemura, S., Takahashi, Y., Kodai, S., Mizuguchi, S., Nishikawa, Y., Suehiro, S., Okada, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  27. Nonoxidative ethanol metabolites alter extracellular matrix protein content in rat pancreas. Lugea, A., Gukovsky, I., Gukovskaya, A.S., Pandol, S.J. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 messenger RNA expression is induced in rat hepatocytes in vivo by dexamethasone. Konkle, B.A., Schuster, S.J., Kelly, M.D., Harjes, K., Hassett, D.E., Bohrer, M., Tavassoli, M. Blood (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Diethylstilbestrol selectively modulates plasma coagulation protein synthesis by the perfused rat liver. Owens, M.R., Cimino, C.D. Blood (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Thy-1 is a neuronal and glial surface antigen which interacts with matrix proteins and plasminogen activator. Liësi, P., Salonen, E.M., Dahl, D., Vaheri, A., Richards, S.J. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Plasminogen binds specifically to alpha-enolase on rat neuronal plasma membrane. Nakajima, K., Hamanoue, M., Takemoto, N., Hattori, T., Kato, K., Kohsaka, S. J. Neurochem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Complexes of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its serpin inhibitor plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 are internalized by means of the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/alpha 2-macroglobulin receptor. Orth, K., Madison, E.L., Gething, M.J., Sambrook, J.F., Herz, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Sp1-decoy oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits high glucose-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Chae, Y.M., Park, K.K., Magae, J., Lee, I.S., Kim, C.H., Kim, H.C., Hong, S., Lee, J.G., Choi, I.J., Kim, H.S., Min, K.S., Lee, I.K., Chang, Y.C. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Effect of the nephritogenic autoantibody of Heymann's nephritis on plasminogen-binding to gp330 and activation by urokinase. Kanalas, J.J. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1993) [Pubmed]
  35. PC12 cells overexpressing tissue plasminogen activator regenerate neurites to a greater extent and migrate faster than control cells in complex extracellular matrix. Pittman, R.N., DiBenedetto, A.J. J. Neurochem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Epidermal growth factor stimulates tissue plasminogen activator activity and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in cultured rat granulosa cells: mediation by pathways independent of protein kinases-A and -C. Galway, A.B., Oikawa, M., Ny, T., Hsueh, A.J. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide modulates plasminogen activator expression in rat granulosa cell. Apa, R., Lanzone, A., Miceli, F., Vaccari, S., Macchione, E., Stefanini, M., Canipari, R. Biol. Reprod. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. Prolactin inhibition of FSH-induced tissue type plasminogen activator expression in cultured rat granulosa cells. Liu, Y.X., Liu, H.Z., Chen, Y.J., Tor, N.Y. Sheng li xue bao : [Acta physiologica Sinica]. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator: a paracrine factor regulating the bioavailability of IGFs in PA-III cell-induced osteoblastic metastases. Koutsilieris, M., Frenette, G., Lazure, C., Lehoux, J.G., Govindan, M.V., Polychronakos, C. Anticancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Irradiation of rat mesangial cells alters the expression of gene products associated with the development of renal fibrosis. Zhao, W., O'Malley, Y., Robbins, M.E. Radiat. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  41. Transforming growth factor beta inhibits plasminogen activator (PA) activity and stimulates production of urokinase-type PA, PA inhibitor-1 mRNA, and protein in rat osteoblast-like cells. Allan, E.H., Zeheb, R., Gelehrter, T.D., Heaton, J.H., Fukumoto, S., Yee, J.A., Martin, T.J. J. Cell. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  42. A neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist decreases postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation and increases peritoneal fibrinolytic activity. Reed, K.L., Fruin, A.B., Gower, A.C., Stucchi, A.F., Leeman, S.E., Becker, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  43. Heparin inhibits the expression of tissue-type plasminogen activator by smooth muscle cells in injured rat carotid artery. Clowes, A.W., Clowes, M.M., Kirkman, T.R., Jackson, C.L., Au, Y.P., Kenagy, R. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
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