The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cachexia and graft-vs.-host-disease-type skin changes in keratin promoter-driven TNF alpha transgenic mice.

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) orchestrates a wide range of effects that combat severe infections in animals. At lower levels, TNF alpha plays an important protective role in stimulating chemotaxis and antimicrobial activity of neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils. During chronic illness, TNF alpha secretion can be elevated markedly, giving rise to cachexia, hemorrhage, necrosis and, ultimately, death. Although TNF alpha may mediate many of its effects through macrophages, 30% of TNF alpha injected into animals concentrates in the skin. In recent years, it has been shown that keratinocytes can be induced to synthesize TNF alpha. To explore the role of TNF alpha synthesis in keratinocytes, we used a keratin-14 (K14) promoter to target human TNF alpha expression in the epidermis and other stratified squamous epithelia of transgenic mice. Most mice expressing the K14-TNF alpha transgene stopped gaining weight within 1 week postbirth, and exhibited retarded hair growth. In the skin, adipose production was profoundly inhibited, whereas signs of fibrosis and immune infiltration were evident in the dermis. Over time, the epidermis exhibited an increased stratum corneum, as signs of necrosis began to appear in the skin. Within 3-5 weeks, the mice displayed features characteristic of cachexia and necrosis. Our results suggest that TNF alpha expression by keratinocytes not only plays a role in inflammatory and graft-versus-host-disease-like responses in the skin, but also in other tissues, apparently by virtue of stratified squamous epithelial-derived TNF alpha entering the bloodstream. Our results have enabled the first evaluation of many of the effects of TNF alpha in transgenic animals.[1]


  1. Cachexia and graft-vs.-host-disease-type skin changes in keratin promoter-driven TNF alpha transgenic mice. Cheng, J., Turksen, K., Yu, Q.C., Schreiber, H., Teng, M., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities