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Disease relevance of Cachexia


Psychiatry related information on Cachexia


High impact information on Cachexia

  • We show that activation of NF-kappaB, through muscle-specific transgenic expression of activated IkappaB kinase beta (MIKK), causes profound muscle wasting that resembles clinical cachexia [11].
  • Mice homozygous for a twist-2 null allele or doubly heterozygous for twist-1 and -2 alleles show elevated expression of proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in perinatal death from cachexia [12].
  • The role of tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) in cachexia [13].
  • It has been suggested that TNF/cachectin may cause cachexia [14].
  • Cancer cachexia is a syndrome of progressive wasting which has been suggested to be mediated by tumour-necrosis factor-alpha, interleukins 1 and 6, interferon-gamma and leukaemia-inhibitory factor [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cachexia


Biological context of Cachexia


Anatomical context of Cachexia


Gene context of Cachexia

  • These findings demonstrate that Fas-mediated anti-recipient cytotoxicity may be critical for the development of hepatic and cutaneous GVHD, but is not required for GVHD-associated cachexia [25].
  • We tested the hypothesis that uremia-associated cachexia is caused by leptin signaling through the hypothalamic melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4-R) [20].
  • These results define iNOS and HuR as critical players in cytokine-induced cachexia, establishing them as potential therapeutic targets [30].
  • Compound INH(-/-)-LH-CTP mice die within 6 weeks of age from severe cancer cachexia induced by large, activin-secreting ovarian tumors [31].
  • Wild-type tumor-bearing mice developed cachexia because of rapid tumor growth, which were both attenuated in IL-6 gene knockouts [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cachexia


  1. A novel form of TNF/cachectin is a cell surface cytotoxic transmembrane protein: ramifications for the complex physiology of TNF. Kriegler, M., Perez, C., DeFay, K., Albert, I., Lu, S.D. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  2. Interleukin-4 receptor-directed cytotoxin therapy of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma tumors in xenograft model. Husain, S.R., Kreitman, R.J., Pastan, I., Puri, R.K. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Cachexia and graft-vs.-host-disease-type skin changes in keratin promoter-driven TNF alpha transgenic mice. Cheng, J., Turksen, K., Yu, Q.C., Schreiber, H., Teng, M., Fuchs, E. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Growth retardation and premature aging phenotypes in mice with disruption of the SNF2-like gene, PASG. Sun, L.Q., Lee, D.W., Zhang, Q., Xiao, W., Raabe, E.H., Meeker, A., Miao, D., Huso, D.L., Arceci, R.J. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. A pathogenetic role for TNF alpha in the syndrome of cachexia, arthritis, and autoimmunity resulting from tristetraprolin (TTP) deficiency. Taylor, G.A., Carballo, E., Lee, D.M., Lai, W.S., Thompson, M.J., Patel, D.D., Schenkman, D.I., Gilkeson, G.S., Broxmeyer, H.E., Haynes, B.F., Blackshear, P.J. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Ghrelin: integrative neuroendocrine peptide in health and disease. Wu, J.T., Kral, J.G. Ann. Surg. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Concentrations of adipsin in blood and rates of adipsin secretion by adipose tissue in humans with normal, elevated and diminished adipose tissue mass. Napolitano, A., Lowell, B.B., Damm, D., Leibel, R.L., Ravussin, E., Jimerson, D.C., Lesem, M.D., Van Dyke, D.C., Daly, P.A., Chatis, P. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Cachexia in rheumatoid arthritis. Walsmith, J., Roubenoff, R. International journal of cardiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. The cocaine-abused heart. Keller, K.B., Lemberg, L. Am. J. Crit. Care (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Implications of interferon-induced tryptophan catabolism in cancer, auto-immune diseases and AIDS. Brown, R.R., Ozaki, Y., Datta, S.P., Borden, E.C., Sondel, P.M., Malone, D.G. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. IKKbeta/NF-kappaB activation causes severe muscle wasting in mice. Cai, D., Frantz, J.D., Tawa, N.E., Melendez, P.A., Oh, B.C., Lidov, H.G., Hasselgren, P.O., Frontera, W.R., Lee, J., Glass, D.J., Shoelson, S.E. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Twist regulates cytokine gene expression through a negative feedback loop that represses NF-kappaB activity. Sosić, D., Richardson, J.A., Yu, K., Ornitz, D.M., Olson, E.N. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The role of tumor necrosis factor (cachectin) in cachexia. Oliff, A. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Tumors secreting human TNF/cachectin induce cachexia in mice. Oliff, A., Defeo-Jones, D., Boyer, M., Martinez, D., Kiefer, D., Vuocolo, G., Wolfe, A., Socher, S.H. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of a cancer cachectic factor. Todorov, P., Cariuk, P., McDevitt, T., Coles, B., Fearon, K., Tisdale, M. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Failure to regulate TNF-induced NF-kappaB and cell death responses in A20-deficient mice. Lee, E.G., Boone, D.L., Chai, S., Libby, S.L., Chien, M., Lodolce, J.P., Ma, A. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. High-dose megestrol acetate. A possible treatment for cachexia. Tchekmedyian, N.S., Tait, N., Moody, M., Aisner, J. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Diabetic neuropathic cachexia. Beneficial response to combination therapy with amitriptyline and fluphenazine. Gade, G.N., Hofeldt, F.D., Treece, G.L. JAMA (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Suramin interferes with interleukin-6 receptor binding in vitro and inhibits colon-26-mediated experimental cancer cachexia in vivo. Strassmann, G., Fong, M., Freter, C.E., Windsor, S., D'Alessandro, F., Nordan, R.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Role of leptin and melanocortin signaling in uremia-associated cachexia. Cheung, W., Yu, P.X., Little, B.M., Cone, R.D., Marks, D.L., Mak, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Cachectin/tumor necrosis factor induces cachexia, anemia, and inflammation. Tracey, K.J., Wei, H., Manogue, K.R., Fong, Y., Hesse, D.G., Nguyen, H.T., Kuo, G.C., Beutler, B., Cotran, R.S., Cerami, A. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS and cachexia. Oster, M.H., Enders, S.R., Samuels, S.J., Cone, L.A., Hooton, T.M., Browder, H.P., Flynn, N.M. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of a human tumor-derived lipolysis-promoting factor. Taylor, D.D., Gercel-Taylor, C., Jenis, L.G., Devereux, D.F. Cancer Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Increased gene expression of brown fat uncoupling protein (UCP)1 and skeletal muscle UCP2 and UCP3 in MAC16-induced cancer cachexia. Bing, C., Brown, M., King, P., Collins, P., Tisdale, M.J., Williams, G. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of cell-mediated cytotoxicity in acute GVHD after MHC-matched allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice. Baker, M.B., Altman, N.H., Podack, E.R., Levy, R.B. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Tumor necrosis factor and the acute metabolic response to tissue injury in man. Starnes, H.F., Warren, R.S., Jeevanandam, M., Gabrilove, J.L., Larchian, W., Oettgen, H.F., Brennan, M.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. TNFalpha inhibits skeletal myogenesis through a PW1-dependent pathway by recruitment of caspase pathways. Coletti, D., Yang, E., Marazzi, G., Sassoon, D. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Cancer cachexia syndrome developed in nude mice bearing melanoma cells producing leukemia-inhibitory factor. Mori, M., Yamaguchi, K., Honda, S., Nagasaki, K., Ueda, M., Abe, O., Abe, K. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Dependence of a human squamous carcinoma and associated paraneoplastic syndromes on the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in nude mice. Yoneda, T., Alsina, M.M., Watatani, K., Bellot, F., Schlessinger, J., Mundy, G.R. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. NF-kappa B-mediated MyoD decay during muscle wasting requires nitric oxide synthase mRNA stabilization, HuR protein, and nitric oxide release. Di Marco, S., Mazroui, R., Dallaire, P., Chittur, S., Tenenbaum, S.A., Radzioch, D., Marette, A., Gallouzi, I.E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Activin induces x-zone apoptosis that inhibits luteinizing hormone-dependent adrenocortical tumor formation in inhibin-deficient mice. Beuschlein, F., Looyenga, B.D., Bleasdale, S.E., Mutch, C., Bavers, D.L., Parlow, A.F., Nilson, J.H., Hammer, G.D. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Experimental cancer cachexia: the role of host-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor alpha evaluated in gene knockout, tumor-bearing mice on C57 Bl background and eicosanoid-dependent cachexia. Cahlin, C., Körner, A., Axelsson, H., Wang, W., Lundholm, K., Svanberg, E. Cancer Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. The roles of gamma-interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in an experimental rat model of cancer cachexia. Langstein, H.N., Doherty, G.M., Fraker, D.L., Buresh, C.M., Norton, J.A. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Total parenteral nutrition prevents further nutritional deterioration in patients with cancer cachexia. Bozzetti, F., Ammatuna, M., Migliavacca, S., Bonalumi, M.G., Facchetti, G., Pupa, A., Terno, G. Ann. Surg. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Involvement of human interleukin 6 in experimental cachexia induced by a human uterine cervical carcinoma xenograft. Tamura, S., Ouchi, K.F., Mori, K., Endo, M., Matsumoto, T., Eda, H., Tanaka, Y., Ishitsuka, H., Tokita, H., Yamaguchi, K. Clin. Cancer Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Hypercalcemia and cosecretion of interleukin-6 and parathyroid hormone related peptide by a human renal cell carcinoma implanted into nude mice. Weissglas, M., Schamhart, D., Löwik, C., Papapoulos, S., Vos, P., Kurth, K.H. J. Urol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Phase III evaluation of 4 doses of megestrol acetate as therapy for patients with cancer anorexia and/or cachexia. Loprinzi, C.L., Bernath, A.M., Schaid, D.J., Malliard, J.A., Athmann, L.M., Michalak, J.C., Tschetter, L.K., Hatfield, A.K., Morton, R.F. Oncology (1994) [Pubmed]
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