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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sildenafil citrate and sildenafil nitrate (NCX 911) are potent inhibitors of superoxide formation and gp91phox expression in porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells.

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with increased superoxide (O(2)(*-)) formation in the pulmonary vasculature and negation of the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Since NO inhibits NADPH oxidase expression through a cyclic GMP-mediated mechanism, sildenafil, a type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor, may be therapeutically effective in ARDS through an augmentation of NO-mediated inhibition of NADPH oxidase. Therefore, the effect of sildenafil citrate and NO-donating sildenafil (NCX 911) on O(2)(*-) formation and gp91(phox) (active catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase) expression was investigated in cultured porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). PAECs were incubated with 10 nM TXA(2) analogue, 9,11-dideoxy-9alpha,11alpha-methanoepoxy-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619) (+/-sildenafil or NCX 911), for 16 h and O(2)(*-) formation measured spectrophometrically and gp91(phox) using Western blotting. The role of the NO-cGMP axis was studied using morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), the diethylamine/NO complex (DETA-NONOate), the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 1H-{1,2,4}oxadiazolo{4,3-a}quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ), and the protein kinase G inhibitor, 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate, Rp-isomer (Rp-8-Br-cGMPS). NO release was studied using a fluorescence assay and O(2)(*-)-NO interactions by measuring nitrites. After a 16-h incubation with 10 nM U46619, both NCX 911 and sildenafil elicited a concentration-dependent inhibition of O(2)(*-) formation and gp91(phox) expression, NCX 911 being more potent (IC(50); 0.26 nM) than sildenafil citrate (IC(50); 1.85 nM). These inhibitory effects were reversed by 1 microM ODQ and 10 microM Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. NCX 911 stimulated the formation of cGMP in PAECs and generated NO in a cell-free system to a greater degree than sildenafil citrate. The inhibitory effect of sildenafil was augmented by 1 muM SIN-1 and blocked partially by the eNOS inhibitor 10 microM N(5)-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine (L-NIO). Acutely, sildenafil and NCX 911 also inhibited O(2)(*-) formation, again blocked by 1 microM ODQ. NCX 911 reacted with O(2)(*-) generated by xanthine oxidase, an effect that was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (500 U ml(-1)). Since O(2)(*-) formation plays contributory role in ARDS, both sildenafil citrate and NCX 911 may be indicated for treating ARDS through suppression of NADPH oxidase expression and therefore of O(2)(*-) formation and preservation of NO bioavailability.[1]


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