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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Fibromodulin is expressed in leiomyoma and myometrium and regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue therapy and TGF-beta through Smad and MAPK-mediated signalling.

Microarray gene expression profiling revealed fibromodulin (FMOD) is among differentially expressed genes in leiomyoma (L) and myometrium. Using realtime PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we validated the expression of FMOD in paired leiomyoma and myometrium (N = 20) during the menstrual cycle, from women who received gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRHa) therapy (N = 7) and in leiomyoma and myometrial (M) smooth muscle cells (SMC) due to transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and GnRHa treatment. The results indicated that FMOD is expressed at significantly higher levels in leiomyoma as compared to myometrium from proliferative phase (two- to three-folds; P < 0.05), but not the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, whereas GnRHa therapy reduced FMOD expression to levels detected in myometrium from proliferative phase (P = 0.05). By using western blotting and immunohistochemistry immunoreactive FMOD was detected in leiomyoma and myometrial tissue-extract and in LSMC and MSMC, connective tissue fibroblasts and arterial walls. In a time- and cell-dependent manner, TGF-beta1 (2.5 ng/ml) increased the expression of FMOD in MSMC, whereas GnRHa (0.1 microM) inhibited that in MSMC and LSMC (P < 0.05). The effect of TGF-beta and GnRHa on FMOD expression was reversed following pretreatment of LSMC and MSMC with Smad3 SiRNA and U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), respectively. In summary, menstrual cycle-dependent expression of FMOD and suppression following GnRHa therapy in leiomyoma and myometrium, as well as differential regulation by TGF-beta and GnRHa in vitro suggests that FMOD, a key regulator of tissue organization, plays a critical role in leiomyoma fibrotic characteristics.[1]


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