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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

SNAP25, but not syntaxin 1A, recycles via an ARF6-regulated pathway in neuroendocrine cells.

Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins mediate cellular membrane fusion events and provide a level of specificity to donor-acceptor membrane interactions. However, the trafficking pathways by which individual SNARE proteins are targeted to specific membrane compartments are not well understood. In neuroendocrine cells, synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) is localized to the plasma membrane where it functions in regulated secretory vesicle exocytosis, but it is also found on intracellular membranes. We identified a dynamic recycling pathway for SNAP25 in PC12 cells through which plasma membrane SNAP25 recycles in approximately 3 h. Approximately 20% of the SNAP25 resides in a perinuclear recycling endosome-trans-Golgi network ( TGN) compartment from which it recycles back to the plasma membrane. SNAP25 internalization occurs by constitutive, dynamin-independent endocytosis that is distinct from the dynamin-dependent endocytosis that retrieves secretory vesicle constituents after exocytosis. Endocytosis of SNAP25 is regulated by ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF)6 (through phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate synthesis) and is dependent upon F-actin. SNAP25 endosomes, which exclude the plasma membrane SNARE syntaxin 1A, merge with those derived from clathrin-dependent endocytosis containing endosomal syntaxin 13. Our results characterize a robust ARF6-dependent internalization mechanism that maintains an intracellular pool of SNAP25, which is compatible with possible intracellular roles for SNAP25 in neuroendocrine cells.[1]


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