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Gene Review

Stx1a  -  syntaxin 1A (brain)

Mus musculus

Synonyms: HPC-1, Neuron-specific antigen HPC-1, Syntaxin-1A
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Disease relevance of Stx1a


High impact information on Stx1a

  • However, this organelle did not contain SV2, another synaptic vesicle protein, nor did it contain presynaptic membrane proteins, such as syntaxin 1A or SNAP-25, or other known anterograde motor proteins, such as kinesin and KIF3 [5].
  • Thus, granuphilin not only is essential for the docking of insulin granules but simultaneously imposes a fusion constraint on them through an interaction with the syntaxin-1a fusion machinery [6].
  • Here we demonstrate that granuphilin directly binds to syntaxin 1a on the plasma membrane, and this interaction is regulated by Rab27a [7].
  • Granuphilin modulates the exocytosis of secretory granules through interaction with syntaxin 1a [7].
  • Here we have analyzed the trafficking of syntaxin 1A in INS-1 and CHO cells [8].

Biological context of Stx1a


Anatomical context of Stx1a


Associations of Stx1a with chemical compounds

  • Overexpression of t-SNAREs, syntaxin 1A, and SNAP-25 inhibited the mastoparan-induced insulin release by approximately half-fold of control levels, however, the mastoparan-induced GABA release was not affected by these t-SNAREs overexpression [14].
  • HPC-1/syntaxin 1A affinity-purified on a 14D8 IgG-coupled column was recognized by antiphosphoserine antibody, but not by antiphosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine antibodies [11].

Physical interactions of Stx1a

  • Interestingly, we found that SNARE motif-exposed syntaxin 1A mutants were retained in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and failed to transport to the cell surface in the absence of SNAP-25, suggesting that the exposure of the SNARE motif causes ER retention and complexation with SNAP-25 helps the ER escape [8].

Regulatory relationships of Stx1a


Other interactions of Stx1a

  • The peripheral location of granules is well overlapped with both localizations of granuphilin and syntaxin 1a [15].
  • No difference in the morphology, neuritic outgrowth or distribution of SNAP-25, syntaxin 1A, or synaptophysin could be observed in ScGT1-1 cells [16].
  • As such, regulation of the interaction between Munc18a and syntaxin 1a may provide an important mechanism controlling secretory responsiveness [17].
  • In the current study, we used quantitative in situ hybridisation to examine mRNA expression of SNAREs (25 kDa synaptosome-associated protein (SNAP-25), syntaxin-1A and synaptobrevin-2) and SNARE-associated proteins (alpha-SNAP, CPLXI and CPLXII) in brain of R6/2 mice and their wild type littermates between 3 and 15 weeks of age [18].
  • Syntaxin-3 and syntaxin-1A inhibit L-type calcium channel activity, insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis in beta-cell lines [19].


  1. Participation of syntaxin 1A in membrane trafficking involving neurite elongation and membrane expansion. Zhou, Q., Xiao, J., Liu, Y. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Transgenic mouse overexpressing syntaxin-1A as a diabetes model. Lam, P.P., Leung, Y.M., Sheu, L., Ellis, J., Tsushima, R.G., Osborne, L.R., Gaisano, H.Y. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Differential expression of neuroD in primary cultures of cerebral cortical neurons. Katayama, M., Mizuta, I., Sakoyama, Y., Kohyama-Koganeya, A., Akagawa, K., Uyemura, K., Ishii, K. Exp. Cell Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Overexpressed syntaxin 1A/HPC-1 inhibits insulin secretion via a regulated pathway, but does not influence glucose metabolism and intracellular Ca2+ in insulinoma cell line beta TC3 cells. Nagamatsu, S., Nakamichi, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Sawa, H., Akagawa, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The neuron-specific kinesin superfamily protein KIF1A is a unique monomeric motor for anterograde axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors. Okada, Y., Yamazaki, H., Sekine-Aizawa, Y., Hirokawa, N. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Granuphilin molecularly docks insulin granules to the fusion machinery. Gomi, H., Mizutani, S., Kasai, K., Itohara, S., Izumi, T. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Granuphilin modulates the exocytosis of secretory granules through interaction with syntaxin 1a. Torii, S., Zhao, S., Yi, Z., Takeuchi, T., Izumi, T. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Domain requirement for the membrane trafficking and targeting of syntaxin 1A. Yang, X., Xu, P., Xiao, Y., Xiong, X., Xu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. A regulated interaction of syntaxin 1A with the antidepressant-sensitive norepinephrine transporter establishes catecholamine clearance capacity. Sung, U., Apparsundaram, S., Galli, A., Kahlig, K.M., Savchenko, V., Schroeter, S., Quick, M.W., Blakely, R.D. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. SNAP25, but not syntaxin 1A, recycles via an ARF6-regulated pathway in neuroendocrine cells. Aikawa, Y., Xia, X., Martin, T.F. Mol. Biol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Characterization of HPC-1 antigen, an isoform of syntaxin-1, with the isoform-specific monoclonal antibody, 14D8. Kushima, Y., Fujiwara, T., Sanada, M., Akagawa, K. J. Mol. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of knock-out mice to determine the role of HPC-1/syntaxin 1A in expressing synaptic plasticity. Fujiwara, T., Mishima, T., Kofuji, T., Chiba, T., Tanaka, K., Yamamoto, A., Akagawa, K. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Regulation of insulin exocytosis by Munc13-1. Sheu, L., Pasyk, E.A., Ji, J., Huang, X., Gao, X., Varoqueaux, F., Brose, N., Gaisano, H.Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Mastoparan stimulates GABA release from MIN6 cells: relationship between SNARE proteins and mastoparan action. Ohara-Imaizumi, M., Nakamichi, Y., Ozawa, S., Katsuta, H., Ishida, H., Nagamatsu, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Rab27 effector granuphilin promotes the plasma membrane targeting of insulin granules via interaction with syntaxin 1a. Torii, S., Takeuchi, T., Nagamatsu, S., Izumi, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Altered interaction and expression of proteins involved in neurosecretion in scrapie-infected GT1-1 cells. Sandberg, M.K., Löw, P. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Regulation of exocytosis by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 via phosphorylation of Munc18. Fletcher, A.I., Shuang, R., Giovannucci, D.R., Zhang, L., Bittner, M.A., Stuenkel, E.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Regional and progressive changes in brain expression of complexin II in a mouse transgenic for the Huntington's disease mutation. Freeman, W., Morton, A.J. Brain Res. Bull. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Syntaxin-3 and syntaxin-1A inhibit L-type calcium channel activity, insulin biosynthesis and exocytosis in beta-cell lines. Kang, Y., Huang, X., Pasyk, E.A., Ji, J., Holz, G.G., Wheeler, M.B., Tsushima, R.G., Gaisano, H.Y. Diabetologia (2002) [Pubmed]
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